Our chocolatecoated wafer biscuits are prone to cracking

Why does this happen and how can we avoid the problem? ... 198

11.5 We are experiencing intermittent problems with gluten formation in our wafer batter. What causes this problem? . . 199

11.6 A batch of our biscuits containing oatmeal has developed a 'soapy' after-taste which makes them unpalatable. Why is this?

11.7 How do biscuits and crackers get broken during storage, even if they are not disturbed? 201

11.8 We are making a ginger crunch cookie. Why do we experience variations in size? 202

11.9 When making ginger nuts we find that we do not always get the degree of cracking that we would like. Why is this? . . . . 203

12 Other bakery products 204

12.1 Why are we getting a grey-green coloration to our choux buns? 204

12.2 Why is powdered ammonium carbonate or 'vol' added to choux paste? 205

12.3 Why are cream buns baked under covers but eclairs are not? 206

12.4 What are the most important factors that control the volume of choux paste products? 207

12.5 We wish to make a large batch of eclair cases and store them for a few days before filling and icing them. What is the best way to keep them to preserve their quality? 209

12.6 Why do our choux buns collapse during baking? 210

12.7 We stand our finished choux buns on U-shaped cardboard and wrap them in a cellulose-based film. Recently we have observed the growth of mould colonies on the products. Why is this? 211

12.8 We find that our Viennese fingers go soft very quickly after baking. How can we prevent this from happening? 212

12.9 We freeze our unbaked pizza bases in a nitrogen tunnel. On defrosting and baking we get bubbles forming on the top of the product accompanied with an open crumb cell structure.

How can these problems be overcome? 213

12.10 Our scones are made from frozen dough but frequently lack volume. We also find that the crumb colour is rather brown.

How can we improve our product quality? 214

12.11 Some of our scone bakings have a coarse break at the side and an open crumb cell structure but the results are not consistent. What steps should we take to obtain a better and more consistent product quality? 215

12.12 How can we extend the shelf-life of our scones? 216

12.13 The surface of our scones is covered with speckles of a yellowish-brown colour. Why? 217

12.14 Why should particular care be taken when washing scones with egg wash to ensure no egg runs down the sides of the pieces of dough? 218

12.15 Why does our royal icing not harden adequately? 219

12.16 We are receiving complaints of opaque spots on our fudge icing. Is there a remedy? 220

12.17 After two days our royal icing tends to turn yellow. Can this discoloration be prevented? 221

12.18 After storing our products overnight we find that cracks form in the fondant coating. How can this problem be overcome? 222

12.19 I have heard that off-odours can be caused by the icing used for cake decorations. Is this true? 223

12.20 We make sugar paste shapes and store them in plastic containers for later use. In a few days the shapes soften and are inclined to droop. How might we overcome this problem? 224

12.21 We bake our meringues on aluminium sheets and are having problems with the meringues becoming discoloured. How can this problem be eliminated? 225

12.22 When making Italian meringues why is the boiling sugar water added slowly? 226

12.23 We are experiencing cracking of our meringue shells during baking. Why is this? 227

12.24 We are having problems with softening of coffee meringues in which we use coffee powder as the flavouring. Is this the cause of the problem? 228

12.25 The aeration of our whipping cream varies from time to time and we often suffer volume losses. How can we improve the aeration and the consistency of our results? 229

12.26 Why does our whipped cream collapse on standing? 230

12.27 Recently we experienced a problem with a fishy taint in a batch of buttercream. Why? 232

12.28 How can we prevent our apple pie filling going mouldy within a few days? 233

12.29 In some of our apple pies we find that the filling has turned blue. Why? 234

12.30 Can you suggest a solution to the problem of shrinkage in our apple pie filling? 235

12.31 After a short period of storage we observe crater-like crystalline formations on our cheese cake topping. Why does this occur? 236

12.32 Our crumpets have become blind, that is they have lost the characteristic surface holes. Why? 237

12.33 Why is a small amount of bicarbonate of soda added to pikelet batters just before baking? 238

12.34 On some occasions our almond macaroons exhibit very coarse cracks on the surface instead of the fine cracks we are seeking. What is the cause? 239

12.35 Why are macaroons baked in a cool oven? 240

12.36 Why are Japanese biscuits stored in a warm, dry place? ... 241

12.37 Why does the chocolate coating on our marshmallow teacakes crack during storage? How can the problem be solved? 242

12.38 What causes the white bloom that sometimes occurs on chocolate coatings? 243

12.39 The bakers' chocolate coating we use tends to flake off our eclairs. What is the likely cause of the problem? 244

12.40 We would like to store our wedding cakes after coating with marzipan for some time before we ice them but find that the marzipan hardens. Why is this and how can we achieve our aims? 245

12.41 The edges of our soda farls become gummy a couple of days after baking. What is the cause of this quality defect? 246

12.42 Why is it that wine cakes do not break nicely if baked in over-greased tins? 247

12.43 Why do we find jam or marmalade goes watery? 248

13.1 What is the phosphotase test and how is it used in the bakery? 249

13.2 What is meant by hydrogen ion concentration and how is the pH scale determined? 251

13.3 What is the meaning of the term syneresis when applied to bread? 253

13.4 In some technical literature there is reference to batter specific gravity or relative density. What is this? How is it measured? What is its relevance to cake- and spongemaking? Why is the volume of the baked product referred to in terms of specific volume? 255

13.5 What is a super-saturated solution? 256

13.6 What was the Aquazyme process? 257

13.7 What is trencher bread and how was it used? 258

13.8 What is the product known as a Grant loaf? 259

13.9 What is Baumkuchen and how is it made? 261

13.10 What are the origins of poppadams? 262

13.11 What is kebab bread? 264

13.12 What is balady bread? 265

13.13 How are chapattis made? 266

13.14 What are stotty cakes and how are they produced? 267

13.15 What is ganache? 268

13.16 What are tortillas? 269

13.17 What are the origins of the cottage loaf? 270

13.18 What is micronised wheat? 272

Index 273

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