Bread Process

6.9 We are using the Chorleywood Bread Process to develop our doughs and apply a partial vacuum during mixing to produce a fine and uniform cell structure in the baked loaf. Sometimes we observe that the cell structure becomes more open even though the vacuum pump is still working. What is the cause of this problem? 94

6.10 We are using spiral mixers for our bread doughs. What is the best mixing time to use? 96

6.11 Why is it necessary to control the temperature of bread doughs? 97

6.12 We have been experiencing some variation in crust colour on our bread products. What causes bread crust colour and why should it vary? 98

6.13 Why is the surface of some bread doughs cut before baking? .. 99

6.14 What are the best conditions to use for proving bread dough? 100

6.15 Can we freeze our unproved dough pieces and store them for later use? 101

6.16 What happens when dough bakes? 102

6.17 Why do crusty breads go soft when they are wrapped? 104

6.18 We have been comparing our bread with that of our competitors and find that our breads are firmer. Why? 106

6.19 We have been deep-freezing bread products and experience a number of problems with different products. With crusty products we observe that the crust falls off, but with some other products we find that longer periods of storage lead to the formation of white, translucent patches in the crumb which are very hard eating. Are the problems related to the performance of our freezer? 108

7 Fermented products 110

7.1 What steps could be taken to prevent round doughnuts shrinking or collapsing within a few minutes of leaving the fryer? 110

7.2 The fermented doughnuts we are making tend to be quite greasy to eat. How can we reduce this problem? 112

7.3 When we retard our rolls before proving and baking we sometimes see a dark mark on the base after baking. We see similar problems with our retarded doughnuts. Is this mould because products have been left to cool on the trays before wrapping? We use silicone paper to bake on; does this aggravate the problem? 113

7.4 We are retarding our roll and stick doughs overnight but find that the products baked from them are covered with many small, white, almost translucent spots on the surface. We do not get the same problem with our scratch production using the same recipe. Can you give an explanation for their appearance and advise on how to get rid of them? 114

7.5 We have problems with our retarded teacakes which have large holes underneath the top crust. We do not experience the same problem with scratch made products. Why is this? 116

7.6 We have been receiving complaints that our small fermented products, such as rolls, teacakes and baps, are staling too quickly. How can we improve the product softness? 117

7.7 We have been experiencing difficulties with the production of our bread rolls. The finished rolls have poor volume with large holes in the crumb. What measures might we take to eliminate these faults? 119

7.8 Our fruit breads rise very slowly in the prover and fail to rise any further in the oven. We make some unfruited products with the same formulation and they are satisfactory in all respects. Why? 120

7.9 Our fruited buns frequently collapse when they leave the oven. We have tried baking them for longer but this does not cure the problem. Our fruited loaves made from the same dough do not have the problem. Why? 121

7.10 When we cut open bread rolls and hamburger buns that have been stored in the deep freeze for a period of time we observe a white ring just inside the crust which has a hard eating character. Where does this problem come from? 122

8 Laminated products 124

8.1 What causes puff pastry to rise during baking? 124

8.2 Why do we get a less regular lift in our puff pastry when we use the Scotch method compared with the English or French? .. 126

8.3 We are experiencing a problem with our puff pastry, which fails to lift and shows no sign of layering on baking. Why is this? 127

8.4 What are the purposes of the resting periods in the production of laminated products? 128

8.5 We have been experiencing some problems with excessive shrinking of our puff pastry products. What are the probable causes? 129

8.6 Why are acids sometimes added to puff pastry? 130

8.7 How should we handle the trimmings we get during the production of puff pastry shapes? 131

8.8 We are experiencing a problem with the discoloration of unbaked puff pastry stored under refrigerated conditions. Sometimes black spots appear on the surface. Why does this happen and how can it be avoided? 132

8.9 We wish to make croissant with the moulded ends joining to form a circle but find that they open up during baking. How can we overcome this problem? 133

8.10 Why should croissant and Danish pastry doughs be given less lamination than puff pastry? 135

9 Short pastry 136

9.1 Why does our pork pie pastry go soft during storage and what can we do to make our pastry crisper? 136

9.2 We are producing unbaked meat pies but find that the short pastry lid cracks on freezing. The cracks become larger when the product thaws and during baking the filling may boil out, leaving an unsightly blemish on the surface. Why is this and what can we do about it? 138

9.3 Our baked pastries and quiches are baked in individual foils. Why do they have small indents in the base, which project upwards and are pale in colour? 139

9.4 How can we make the sweet pastry we use with our apple pies crisper eating? 140

9.5 From time to time we experience problems with the sheeting of our short pastry; in particular it cracks or fails to remain cohesive. Why does this happen? 142

9.6 We are having difficulty in blocking out savoury pie paste in foils. There is a tendency for the dough to stick to the block, causing the base of the foil case to become misshapen. We do not have the same problem with our sweetened paste. Why? . . 143

9.7 Why is the hot water method preferred for the production of savoury pastry but not for sweetened pastry? 144

9.8 Why does the filling of baked custards sometimes have a watery appearance in the cold product? 145

9.9 How do we avoid 'boil-out' of our pie fillings? 146

9.10 We wish to reuse pastry trimmings but find that sometimes we experience a 'soapy' taste in the final product. Can you suggest a cause for the flavour and how best to reuse the trimmings to avoid this and any other potential problems? .. 147

10 Cakes and sponges 148

10.1 What is the flour-batter method of cakemaking? 148

10.2 What is the sugar-batter method of cakemaking? 150

10.3 When making fruit cakes we find that the fruit settles to the bottom of the cake after baking. Why is this and what can we do about it? 151

10.4 Can we freeze cake batters and what happens to them during storage? 153

10.5 When we add fresh fruits such as blackcurrants to our cake batters we sometimes find that they fail to keep their colour during baking and often discolour the batter adjacent to the fruit. Can you offer an explanation and a solution to the problem? 154

10.6 Why do cakes go mouldy? 155

10.7 In the light of the previous question, why do heavily fruited cakes go mouldy more slowly? 157

10.8 Why are we getting mould between our cakes and the board on which they sit? 158

10.9 We are experiencing mould growth on the surface of our iced Christmas cakes. This is the first time we have had this problem. Why has it happened? 159

10.10 We are experiencing a 'musty', off-odour developing in our cakes, even though we store them in a deep freeze. Why? .. 160

10.11 When we take our cup cakes from the oven we find that the paper cases they were baked in fall off. How do we avoid this problem? 161

10.12 Why do our Genoese sheets tend to lack volume and have cores in the crumb? 162

10.13 Sometimes our Madeira cake has a poor (coarse) texture.

How can we improve it? 163

10.14 Our small Madeira cakes often shrink excessively during cooling. How can we avoid this? 164

10.15 Why do cake batters made by the sugar-batter method sometimes have a curdled appearance? Does this affect final cake quality? 165

10.16 We are experiencing seepage of jam in our frozen fresh cream gateaux when they are thawed. Can we avoid this? . . 166

10.17 What are the causes of the small, white speckles we sometimes see on the crust of our cakes? 167

10.18 Why are we getting an orange discoloration of the crumb of our fruit cakes? 168

10.19 Our sultana cakes are collapsing. What can we do to remedy this problem? 169

10.20 Why are we getting large holes in the crumb of our fruited slab cake? 170

10.21 Why do cakes sometimes sink in the middle? 171

10.22 Our fruited cakes are fine to eat soon after production but tend to become drier eating after a few days. Why? 172

10.23 Our cake quality varies when we change from one type of oven to another, even when the ovens register the same temperature. Why? 174

10.24 We are encountering an intermittent fault with our round high-ratio cakes in that a shiny ring with a pitted appearance is seen on the cake surface. What factors are likely to give rise to this fault? 176

10.25 How important is the temperature of cakes at the point of wrapping? 177

10.26 We have a shrinkage problem with the parkin cake we produce. How can we eliminate it? 179

10.27 What precautions should we take when freezing flour confectionery products? 180

10.28 We would like to improve the quality of our slab cake. How important is batter temperature in this context? 181

10.29 Why should the whole of the batter for one slab be placed in the tin in one piece rather than bit by bit? 182

10.30 What happens to the batter when cakes enter the oven and how can you tell when a cake is baked? 183

10.31 What are the advantages of having the oven filled when baking slab or other cakes? 185

10.32 Why do we add extra acid to make white cake batters? ____ 186

10.33 We have been experiencing problems with the collapse of our sponge sandwiches which leaves the product with a depression in the top of the cake and an area of coarse cell structure in the crumb. What causes this problem? 187

10.34 We are having problems with the bottom crust of our sponge cake products becoming detached after baking. We also notice that the corners of the product become rounded and the texture close. Why do these problems occur? 189

10.35 When making sponge drops we find that the last ones to be deposited are not as good as the first ones. Why is this? . . . . 191

10.36 From time to time we experience problems with Swiss rolls cracking on rolling. What causes the problem? 192

10.37 What causes sponge sandwiches to assume a peaked shape during baking? 193

10.38 How do we convert a plain sponge recipe to a chocolate form? 194

11 Biscuits 195

11.1 What is 'vol' and what is its function in biscuit doughs? ... 195

11.2 From time to time we have noticed a white discoloration on the surface of our all-butter shortbread. Why does this occur? 196

11.3 We produce biscuits containing powdered fructose which we cream with the fat and sucrose before adding the other ingredients. Recently we have seen the appearance of brown spots on the product. What causes this effect? 197

Continue reading here: Our chocolatecoated wafer biscuits are prone to cracking

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