Baking Tips

What are the critical properties of fats for making bread cakes and pastries

To answer this question it is first necessary to be clear about the definition of a fat. In the bakery this is usually the term given to a material that is a blend of liquid oils and solid fats from different sources, usually vegetable in origin. Podmore (1997) provides a comprehensive review of the nature and structure of fats. The basic building blocks of fats are the fatty acids, of which there are three. The fatty acids of the triglyceride may be the same as one another or different. All...

Cauvain Sponge Cake Technology

CAUVAIN, S.P. and YOUNG, L.S. (2000) Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality Water control and effects, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK. TELLOKE, G.W. (1984) The mixing of cake batters. FMBRA Report No. 114, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, UK. 3.7 We are making 'all-butter' cakes but find that after baking they lack volume and have a firm eating character. Why is this and is there any way to improve the cake quality Butter is often chosen in cakemaking because of its quality attributes related to flavour...

Other bakery ingredients

5.1 Is it true that yeast requires oxygen before it can work correctly As long ago as 1875, Louis Pasteur showed that fermentation could take place in the complete absence of oxygen. He also showed that the presence of oxygen inhibited fermentation but increased yeast growth and respiration. Pasteur's observation that 'fermentation is life without air' is a well-known quotation in food science. If oxygen is introduced in increasing quantities into a fermenting sugar solution, fermentation slows...

We have been experiencing some variation in crust colour on our bread products What causes bread crust colour and why

The crust colour in bread is principally formed by Maillard-type reactions involving reducing sugars and amino compounds (free amino acids and terminal amino-groups in soluble proteins). For colour formation you need both factors to be present in appropriate amounts. A small amount of the main reducing sugar, maltose, may be present in the flour but in fermentation, proving and the early stages of baking the alpha- and beta-catalysed hydrolysis of the starch in the flour increases the amount...

What is the sugarbatter method of cakemaking

With this cakemaking method a batter is formed based on an emulsion of oil in water with air bubbles trapped in the fat phase. The other ingredients are dissolved or dispersed in the water phase. The fats and sugar are creamed together until the mixture is light. Usually this takes about 10 minutes but does depend on the temperature and creaming qualities of the fat and the type of mixer used. Most commercial bakers mix the batter to a fixed specific gravity (see 13.4). The liquid egg is then...

What is the meaning of the term syneresis when applied to bread

Syneresis is the name given to a particular physical or colloidal change that takes place in starch and other gels as they age. It is caused by crystallisation or aggregation of polymers, causing loss of water from the surface of components. It is common with some starch gels, particularly those subjected to freezing and thawing. The released water may evaporate to be absorbed by other components by diffusion or vapour phase transfer, or may be lost from the product component, causing it to dry...

What is chlorinated flour and how is it used

The treatment of flour with chlorine gas was first identified in the 1920s and was used for the modification of the cakemaking properties of flours for many years in the UK, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and many other countries. The use of chlorination for cake flour treatment was withdrawn from the UK in 2000 The Miscellaneous Food Additive Amendment Regulations, 1999 . It remains permitted in many other countries. Chlorine treatment of flour permits the raising of recipe...

Why do our choux buns collapse during baking

It is important when baking choux products that the oven temperature is sufficiently high to impart heat quickly at the start of baking. Consequently a rapid recovery of the baking temperature after the product has been loaded into the oven is vital. If the temperature controls are set too low then the recovery rate is low, resulting in shrinkage or collapse of the products. If the steam damper is partly or totally open the problem is exacerbated. The best results are obtained when the steam...

Our chocolatecoated wafer biscuits are prone to cracking

Why does this happen and how can we avoid the problem 198 11.5 We are experiencing intermittent problems with gluten formation in our wafer batter. What causes this problem . . 199 11.6 A batch of our biscuits containing oatmeal has developed a 'soapy' after-taste which makes them unpalatable. Why is this 11.7 How do biscuits and crackers get broken during storage, even if they are not disturbed 201 11.8 We are making a ginger crunch cookie. Why do we experience variations in size 202 11.9 When...

What is balady bread

Balady bread is an Egyptian bread product based on a sour dough or starter system. The starter dough is used in order to provide flavour rather than for leavening purposes. The bread is round, flat, puffs up during baking and is easily separated into two layers. The flour blend normally used for this product is 2530 US flour of 72 extraction and 70-75 Egyptian flour of 82 extraction, the latter being similar to a blend of 75 CBP-type flour and 25 wholemeal. Recipe for starter 11 kg old dough...

Why is flour particle size important in cakemaking

Flour Particles

White flour that is used in cakemaking is composed mainly of endosperm fragments that have been separated from the surrounding bran during the milling process. The maximum particle size is fixed by the screen sizes in the plansifters in the mill but typically falls around 150 ,um. If we were to examine a straight run white flour we would find some fragments of the original protein matrix (less than 15 m), some starch granules freed from the protein matrix (up to 45 m), with the remainder being...

Our small Madeira cakes often shrink excessively during cooling How can we avoid this

All cakes shrink a little on cooling. However, excessive shrinking on cooling occurs because the intact gas cells in the texture contract. During baking the gas cells forming the foam in the batter expand as they are filled with the steam and gas produced by the raising agents. Because of the high quantity of sugars in the batter the gelatinisation temperature of the cell wall material is delayed and the structure does not 'set' until the temperature reaches the high 80s C. The flexibility of...

Why do we get a less regular lift in our puff pastry when we use the Scotch method compared with the English or French

The so-called Scotch method of producing puff pastry differs fundamentally from the English or French in that the laminating fat is added at the dough-making stage rather than later in the process. To achieve this the laminating fat is usually cut into small cubes, with sides of about 20 mm, and added to the mixing bowl along with the other ingredients. After mixing, the paste will be sheeted and laminated in a similar manner to paste prepared by the other two methods. Telloke (1991) used light...

Can we freeze cake batters and what happens to them during storage

Cake batters can be frozen successfully and frozen cake batters may be purchased in order to give customers choice without incurring the wastage that might occur with scratch production where demand is less predictable. For those purchasing frozen cake batters the advantages include no storage or handling of raw materials (apart from that for product decoration) no ingredient weighing or mixing on site specialist centralised production improves the chances of optimal product quality improved...

How do we convert a plain sponge recipe to a chocolate form

The use of the term ' chocolate' to describe a cake varies a little around the world and is often regulated in some way. For example, in the UK chocolate can be used as a cake descriptor only if the final product contains not less than 3 dry, non-fat cocoa solids (LAJAC, 1963). This is usually achieved through the addition of cocoa powder and when calculating the level to use in a recipe allowance must be made for variations in moisture (usually around 5 ) and fat (commonly between 10 and 20 )....

We are using walnuts in our gateau buttercream filling and find that it turns black It does not appear to be mould What

You are quite right that the problem is not one of mould growth. The most likely cause is a reaction of the tannin in the walnut pieces with any traces of iron that may be present in the cream, perhaps picked up from the mixing utensils that you have used. The colour may take several days to appear. Sometimes the colour may be purple rather than black, depending on the product pH. We suggest that you use stainless steel utensils and particularly avoid using any iron utensils that are scratched...

What is trencher bread and how was it used

It is believed that trencher bread was first mentioned in fifteenth century books on etiquette (David, 1977) though its origins are likely to be much earlier than the references. Trenchers were coarse slices of bread, from loaves four days old, used instead of a plate at a medieval meal. After the trencher had served its purpose as a plate and had been saturated by the sauces and juices of the meal laid upon it, it was eaten by the servant, cut up for the poor or given to the dogs. Trencher...

We are experiencing intermittent problems with gluten formation in our wafer batter What causes this problem

Gluten development is undesirable in wafer batters because it can lead to blockages in pipes or nozzles of batter distribution systems. This can lead to uneven distribution of batter on the plates and the incomplete formation of wafer sheets. Gluten formation depends on three main factors the presence of protein in the flour, the hydration of that protein from the addition of water and the input of energy during mixing. In batter systems the ratio of water to flour solids is usually high enough...

What effects will variations in flour protein content have on baked product quality How is the property measured

The protein content of flour is probably the single most important property of wheat flour. Perhaps more correctly we should refer to wheat proteins since there is more than one type of protein present. The scheme established by Osborne (1907) is most commonly used for the groups of proteins in wheat, which comprise albumins, soluble in distilled water globulins, soluble in dilute salt solutions prolamines, soluble in 70 aqueous ethanol glutelins, soluble in dilute acid. The two most important...

What is damaged starch in flour How is it damaged and how is it measured What is its importance in baking

Starch granules in flour have a flattened, roughly spherical shape which is sometimes described as lenticular. They range in size from about 10 to 50 m. Each starch granule has a surface or skin. Within the developing wheat grains the starch granules are embedded in a protein matrix in the endosperm. During the flour milling process the endosperm is fragmented by the action of the milling' s rolls or stones. Some of the starch granules are exposed to high pressures during the milling process...

From time to time we have noticed a white discoloration on the surface of our allbutter shortbread Why does this occur

The discoloration that you have observed is the phenomenon commonly referred to as 'fat bloom'. It is the formation of small crystals of fat on the surface of the biscuit and occurs mainly as the result of temperature cycling during storage, that is periods of warmth and cold such as may occur in unheated locations subject to the effects of ambient temperature fluctuation. Fat crystals may exist in a number of different forms (see 3.1). Since their size may be as small as 5 m only agglomerates...

Our scones are made from frozen dough but frequently lack volume We also find that the crumb colour is rather brown How

Scones depend on chemical raising agents for their volume. Once the raising agents come into contact with water the chemical reaction to produce carbon dioxide begins. In the production of a frozen scone dough there is a loss in this aeration capacity because of the onset of the aeration reaction and subsequently a loss in volume in the baked product. To overcome the loss of aeration, a change to a slower-acting acid will help, e.g. sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) or sodium acid aluminium...

What is a supersaturated solution

When a solvent is filled with the substance in solution so that it cannot dissolve any more it is said to have formed a 'saturated' solution of that substance. Sugar is soluble in water. Water is therefore the solvent and sugar is the solute. To illustrate the principle of super-saturation, start by dissolving as much sugar as possible into some water. After adding sugar and constantly stirring the mixture for some time you will find it impossible to dissolve any more sugar. If you do add more...

What is heattreated flour and how can it be used

The modification of wheat to produce heat-treated flour or the direct heat treatment of flour may be used to achieve a number of different changes in the final flour properties. We can broadly classify the type of heat treatment as wet (steam) or dry. Steam treatment of wheat is commonly used to inactivate the enzymes present so that the subsequent flour may be used as a thickening agent, for example in the production of soups. Without inactivation any cereal a-amylase that is present would act...

Our chocolatecoated wafer biscuits are prone to cracking Why does this happen and how can we avoid the problem

The most likely cause of your problem is the absorption of water by the wafer and its subsequent expansion. We suggest that you look closely at the quality of your enrobing practices because any uncoated areas or even pin-prick holes in the coating provide access points for water from the atmosphere. The moisture content of wafers is very low in order that they will have a crisp eating quality. The ERH of the wafer is also very low and much lower than the relative humidity of most atmospheric...

Why does the chocolate coating on our marshmallow teacakes crack during storage How can the problem be solved

The cause of this problem is easy to explain but rather more difficult to eradicate. A marshmallow is a composite product made up of biscuit, marshmallow topping and chocolate coating. Each of these components has a different ERH or water activity. Moisture will move from one component to another, driven mainly by the relative differences in water activity between components. Biscuits have a low ERH and will readily absorb moisture from the atmosphere and become soft. When marshmallow is...

The bakers chocolate coating we use tends to flake off our eclairs What is the likely cause of the problem

Chocolate coating should be correctly tempered to avoid problems. Generally bakers' compound chocolate should first be heated to 54 C (130 F) for plain or 52 C (125 F) for milk and then allowed to cool to coating consistency. The necessary temperatures are about 41-43 C (105-110 F) for plain and 38-41 C (100-105 F) for milk. If the chocolate is not maintained at a constant temperature, there may be variations in the speed of setting. Very rapid setting, perhaps because cooling has occurred in a...

Why does our whipped cream collapse on standing

During the whipping of cream the movement of the wires of the whisk through the fluid draw in small bubbles of air. Fat chains in the cream form at the interface of the air bubble and the aqueous phase, where they stabilise the bubbles and prevent them from rising and escaping from the cream after mixing. In the stable foam that is formed the liquid of the aqueous phase is effectively trapped in the spaces between the stablised air bubbles. On standing, the bubbles in the cream become unstable...