Essential Oils Guide

Learn How To Use Essential Oils

These aromatherapy eBooks are good for beginners and folks who just wanna make stuff. They cover some basic essential oil education, but they focus most on recipes and blending. They're written to help you play and experiment and learn how to use essential oils in your every day life. Learn how to make more than 40 natural home remedies & recipes using Lavender, Lemon, Oregano, Peppermint & Tea Tree. Over 70 Instant Tips to get started right away. More here...

Learn How To Use Essential Oils Summary


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Barriers to the use of herb and spice essential oils as antimicrobials in foods

Since ancient times, spices and herbs have not been consciously added to foods as preservatives but mainly as seasoning additives due to their aromatic properties. Although the majority of essential oils from herbs and spices are classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) (Kabara, 1991), their use in foods as preservatives is limited because of flavour considerations, since effective antimicrobial doses may exceed organoleptically acceptable levels. This problem could possibly be overcome if answers could be given to the following questions

Herbal and aromatherapy baths

Depending on which herbs or essential oils you use. a bath can soothe i your nerves, ease aching limbs, soften your skin, lull you to sleep or stimulate you into action. Enjoy one of these spa-style soaks at home. Sprinkle a few drops of lavender and rosemary essential oils onto the bristles of a long-handled body brush. Starting w ith the soles of your feet and working upwards, briskly brush your body, using firm, circular movements. Grind sunflower seeds in a food processor to a fine meal. Place Epsom salts, sunflower meal, rosemary, orangi rind and powdered ginger in a bowl mix well. Add essential oils, several drops at a time, mixing well after each addition. 2 Place 1 to 2 spoonfuls of mixture in the center of a muslin square, then gather up the sides and secure with ribbon or twine. Store bath bags in an airtight container until ready to use. Use as for Rose petal bath bags (see below). 1 Place oats, dried herbs and powdered marsh mallow root in a bowl mix we Add essential oils,...

Aromatherapy soaps and gels

All soap will get you clean, but adding pure, natural ingredients such as herbal extracts and essential oils will leave your skin feeling silkier. However, even the mildest soap is strongly alkaline, which means that it temporarily disrupts the skin's delicate pH balance and natural oils. To prevent dryness and irritation, use all soaps sparingly and wash with warm, not hot. water. 2 Measure ' cup (60 ml) comfrey mixture and add to soap. Add glycerine and essential oils. Stir thoroughly to combine.

Quality indices for spice essential oils

Essential oil fractions and oleoresins derived from spices are used widely in the food industry to provide flavour. Some of the main essential oils and their origins are shown in Table 3.1. Determining the quality and purity of essential oils faces similar difficulties to establishing the quality of raw spices, given the accepted variations in and mixing of varieties within a particular spice. There are, however, a number of properties that can be used to set quality standards. These include physical characteristics such as Adulteration has been a serious problem for many years in the area of essential oils. Undoubtedly the economic incentive to blend synthetic flavourants with natural oil is too high to resist. Some essential oils naturally contain a single compound at high concentration, and often the synthetic counterpart of this major component is available at a low cost. Addition of this single compound to natural essential oils without declaration on the label amounts to...

Tastings Example of Essential Oils in Rosemary

Although its impact can be powerful, the essential oil is a very small part of the plant, often making up only 0.2 to 1 percent of the total weight. The essential oils are within the cell walls. To release the oils, you have to break the cell walls. Crushing an herb or grinding a spice does exactly that. Heat intensifies the flavor and aroma as it drives more of the oils out of the cell walls. Nearly all herbs and spices need this application of heat before they fully release their aromatic components but there are exceptions. For example, cinnamon sprinkled on your rice pudding gives full flavor impact without any heat.


Essential oils are very versatile and add a wide variety of benefits to homemade skin and hair-care products. They offer potent protection against a range of common ailments and help improve skin and hair health. Their small molecular size means that they can penetrate deep into the dermis to provide a profound healing effect. Their wonderful scents also help balance your emotions.

Essential oils

There are some useful culinary essential oils available in retail. Any health food store carries a large selection of essential oil for aromatherapy, some labeled suitable as culinary flavorings. But they are not easy to use and that is why they have not gained much acceptance. They are so highly concentrated that what you need in a dish you measure by the drops, and it is too easy to ruin a recipe by adding too many drops. For example, the equivalent to one teaspoon of lemon extract is only one or two drops of essential oil of lemon. If you are overzealous and use four drops, your cookies will reek of lemon. Essential oils are expensive, but using two or three drops at a time, the tiny bottle lasts for decades, if not a lifetime. They have unlimited shelflife. (Most of these bottles come with droppers for easy use.) The extracts on your kitchen shelf are really essential oils dissolved in an agent, often alcohol, to make measuring more practical. It is easy to measure one teaspoon of...

When to add the spices

When spicing meat, remember that many spices lose their chief flavoring ingredients, essential oils, after prolonged heating. Sturdy flavorings, such as seeds or bay leaf give off their oils slowly. These flavor best when they are part of the entire cooking process. Delicate herbs, such as tarragon or cilantro lose essential oil quickly on heat. For pronounced flavor, add these only during the last few minutes of cooking.

Main uses in food processing

In the food industry, cloves are often used in the form of ground, extracted essential oils or oleoresin in a small amount because of their intense flavour. The advantages of using ground cloves is that they retain a considerable degree of their original stability during storage and are better able to withstand high-temperature processing (e.g. baking)

My cholesterol has gone up since I started doing Atkins What can I do about it

High cholesterol that has a genetic component usually responds to changes in diet, but may be difficult to address with diet alone. You may still need to take supplements such as pantethine, essential oils, garlic and fiber. For a detailed discussion of cholesterol-lowering nutrients, see Dr Atkins' Vita-Nutrient Solution.

Applications in food systems

There have been relatively few studies of the antimicrobial action of essential oils in model food systems and in real foods (Table 3.5). The efficacy of essential oils in vitro is often much greater than in vivo or in situ, i.e. in foods (Nychas and Tassou, 2000 Davidson, 1997 Skandamis et al., 1999b). For example, the essential oil of mint (Mentha piperita) has been shown to inhibit the growth of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in culture media for 2 days at 30 C. However, the effect of mint essential oil in the traditional Greek appetizers tzatziki (pH 4.5) and taramasalata (pH 5.0) and in pate (pH 6.8) at 4 C and 10 C was variable. Salmonella enteritidis died off in the appetizers under all conditions examined but not when inoculated in pate and maintained at 10 C. Similarly, L. monocytogenes numbers declined in the appetizers but increased in pate (Tassou et al., 1995a,b, 2000). Table 3.5 Applications of essential oils in foods The type of oil or fat present in...

Mode of action and development of resistance

In general, the mode of action of essential oils is concentration dependent (Prindle and Wright, 1977). Low concentrations inhibit enzymes associated with energy production while higher amounts may precipitate proteins. However, it is uncertain whether membrane damage is quantitatively related to the amount of active antimicrobial compound to which the cell is exposed, or the effect is such that, once small injuries are caused, the breakdown of the cell follows (Judis, 1963). Essential oils damage the structural and functional properties of membranes and this is reflected in the dissipation of the two components of the proton motive force the pH gradient (ApH) and the electrical potential (Ay) (Sikkema et al., 1995, Davidson, 1997 Ultee et al., 1999, 2000, 2002). Carvacrol, an active component of many essential oils, has been shown to destabilize the cytoplasmic and outer membranes and act as a 'proton exhanger', resulting in a reduction of the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic...

Quality issues and adulteration

Geranium oil contains mainly citronellol and geraniol and their esters, and therefore can be easily concocted from cheaper essential oils and adjusted to the recommended ISO standards. The antimicrobial activity of such essential oils is much greater than that of some authentic oils but has a similar pharmacological effect on smooth muscle (spasmolytic) and the actual odour can be even more appreciated by perfumers than the real essential oil (Lis-Balchin, 2002c). The essential oil composition of this geranium oil differs completely from that of a true Geranium robertianum oil (Pedro et al., 1992) or that of G. maccrorhizum (Ognyanov, 1985). The most expensive geranium oil was always Bourbon (Guenther, 1950), and it increased in tonnage as well as value over some years, surprisingly, on the small volcanic island of Reunion this was partly due to the increase in geranium oil production in China, which being very similar to that of Bourbon would often get accepted as such (Verlet,...

Body scrubs and splashes

Body splashes are lightly scented loners that help hydrate the skin, balance the pH level and remove excess perspiration and oil. Depending on the essential oils and herbs you use. body splashes have the power to heal skin and to energize you or calm you down To use. spray all over body after bathing let skin air-dry. Store in the refrigerator between uses. These scrub recipes contain essential oils, each with a different purpose and scent chamomile, for instance, calms sensitive skin. Leave scrub on your skin for 2 to 3 minutes to let oils penetrate. 2 Add avocado, avocado oil and honey process again briefly to form a workable paste. Add the essential oils, and mix well. 3 Add water, aloe vera juice, glycerine and the essential oils. Shake well before use.

How concentrated flavors are made

A process called steam distillation extracts all the essential oils of an aromatic plant. The process is simple. They slowly heat the plant and they drive off the volatile essential oils before the moisture evaporates. They collect these volatilized oils, now in vapor form, in cold copper tubes where they condense. Most essential oils look like any other cooking oil, but they have a wide range of colors and very intense scents. You can obtain essential oils yourself by simmering tons of the raw herbs in water in huge vats. Eventually the oil rises to the surface that you skim off as essential oil. Using essential oils and oleoresins does cause one major problem. They are so highly concentrated that the small amount an industrial recipe calls for must be precisely measured. In measuring such small amount even a tiny error could ruin an entire batch of food. Just image trying to mix a quarter cup of a concentrate in a ton of sausage meat. Uniform mixing of such a tiny quantity is very...

Subpart AGeneral Provisions

182.1 Substances that are generally recognized as safe 182.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates) 182.40 Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins,

Eat herbs from 1 lie sea

Spice And Herb Compatibility Chart

Even oily skin needs a light moisturizer to put a barrier between your skin and environmental pollutants. Jojoba oil is compatible with skin and leaves little residue the cinnamon and essential oils counteract the bacteria and toxins on the skin's surface. 1 Lightly crush cinnamon and place in a small container with a lid. Add jojoba oil and steep for 10 days. Strain. Add essential oils. Sensitive skin is characterized by a thin epidermis and small surface veins. Il can be easily irritated by artificial ingredients and even hoi water. To soothe sensitive skin, avoid harsh exfoliants and loners containing alcohol. Use gentle. non-Irritating skincare products formulated w ith naturally calming herbal extracts and essential oils. Aromatherapy face wash Use this light cleanser whenever your skin feels tight and dry. The glycerine draws moisture from the air to the skin. 3 Add contents of capsules and the essential oils whisk until cool. Spoon mixture into a small, wide-mouthed jar. To...

Charai Planta Medicinal

ADAM K., SIVROPOULOU A., KOKKINI S., LANARAS T. and ARSENAKIS M. (1998), 'Antifungal activities of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, and Salvia fruticosa essential oils against human pathogenic fungi,' J. Agric. Food Chem., 46(5), 1739-45. BARATTA M.T., DORMAN H.J.D., DEANS S.G., BIONDI D.M. and RUBERTO G. (1998), 'Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of laurel, sage, rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils,' J. Ess. Oil Res., 10(6), 618-27. BIONDI D., CIANCI P., GERACI C., RUBERTO G. and PIATTELLI M. (1993), 'Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils from Sicilian aromatic plants,' Flavour Fragrance J., 8(6), 331-7. CHARAI M., FAID M. and CHAOUCH A. (1999), 'Essential oils from aromatic plants (Thymus broussonetti Boiss, Origanum compactum Benth, and Citrus limon (L) NL Burm) as natural antioxidants for olive oil,' J. Essential Oil Res, 11(4), 517-21. DAFERERA D.J., ZIOGAS B.N. and...

The Business of Herbs

Frontier Natural Products Co-op offers a wide selection of natural and organic foods and personal care products, plus bulk and bottled herbs, spices, and baking flavors, etc. 800-669-3275 2990 Wilderness Blvd., Ste. 200, Boulder, CO 80301 Indiana Botanic Gardens sells by mail-order dried herbs, essential oils, floral scents, potpourri, spices, etc. Free catalog orders 800-644-8327 info 800-514-1068 or 219-947-4040 fax 219-947-4148 PO Box 5, Hammond, IN 46325 Lor Ann Oils sells essential oils, flavorings, and specialty ingredients for soap-, candle-, and food-crafters 4518 Aurelius Rd., Lansing, MI 48910 800-862-8620 517882-0215 fax 517-882-0507 customercare Penzeys Spices offers 250+ spices and spice blends for gourmet cooks including arrowroot, vanilla beans, ajwain seed, annatto seeds, cassia buds, and gumbo fil 262-785-7676 800-741-7787 PO Box 924, Brookfield, WI 53008-0924 Herb Plant...

Production consumption and processing

Organic spices are gaining in market share. The major consumers of organic spices in the world are the USA, Europe and Japan, which are also the major consumers of herbal spices. There is great potential for the cultivation of organic herbal spices to enjoy the premium price in the international market and to improve the quality and appearance of the produce without any pesticide or chemical residues. The spice extracts such as essential oils and oleoresins from leaves and flowering tops of various herbal spices can be recovered using steam distillation, water cum steam distillation, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and solvent extraction using low-boiling organic solvents. Of the different methods, extraction using compressed carbon dioxide gas or supercritical fluid is the most effective and is currently used on a commercial scale. In steam distillation the plant material is exposed to high temperatures from steam vapour, leading to the degradation of important components of...

Functional properties

Essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants have been known since antiquity to possess biological activity, notably antibacterial, antifungal as well as antioxidant properties (Tiziana and Dorman, 1998). With the increasing interest in the use of essential oil in both the food and the pharmaceutical industries, a systematic evaluation of plant extracts for these properties has become increasingly important. Bacterial and fungal infections pose greater threats to health and hence the use of natural antimicrobial compounds is important in the control of human and plant diseases of microbial origin. Anderson et al. (2000) evaluated the effect of massage with essential oil on children with atopic eczema and found that aromatherapy massage is a good treatment for the control of atopic eczema.

Farrel K T 1990 Spices Condiments And Seasonings

Chem, 42 796-8. guenthere. (1950) The Essential Oils. Vol. 4. Van Nostrand Company Inc., New York, pp. 396-437. Amsterdam, pp. 1-13. salzer, u-j. (1975) Analytical evaluation of seasoning extracts (oleoresin) and essential oils from seasonings. I. Int. Flavour Food Additivies, 6 151-7, 206-10, 253-8. ziegler, E. and ziegler H. (1998) Flavourings, Production, Composition, Application and Regulation. In Christian, Karl (Ed.) Flavouring Herbs, Spices and Essential Oils. Veley-VCH, New York, p. 193.

Functional properties and toxicity

All essential oils of different lavenders showed a post-synaptic effect on the guinea pig ileum and none possesses atropine-like activity (Lis-Balchin and Hart, 1999) or appears to stimulate adrenoceptors. Lavender oil and linalool, appear to mediate a spasmolytic action on intestinal smooth muscle via a rise in cAMP (Lis-Balchin and Hart, 1999). There is no evidence of the use of calcium channels except at very high concentrations. This is in contrast to other essential oils (Vuorela et al., 1997). There is no evidence for potassium channel opening. The essential oil from L. dentata L., and its component 1,8-cineole, has been shown to inhibit calcium-induced contraction of rat duodenum. There is recent evidence to show that the methanolic extracts of L. angustifolia (dry flowers, fresh flowers and fresh leaves) are calcium channel blockers, as are the leaves of L. viridis and L. stoechas (Hart and Lis-Balchin, 2002). The fact that some extracts of L. angustifolia have a strong...

Future prospects and multifactorial preservation

Given the high flavour and aroma impact of plant essential oils, the future for using these compounds as food preservatives lies in the careful selection and evaluation of their efficacy at low concentrations but in combination with other chemical preservatives or preservation processes. Synergistic combinations have been identified between garlic extract and nisin, carvacrol and nisin, vanillin or citral and sorbate, thyme oil and or cinnamaldehyde in an edible coating, and low-dose gamma irradiation and extracts of rosemary or thyme.

Chemical composition

Allspice Chemical Structure

Allspice contains various essential oils (Pino et al., 1989), phenolic acids (Schulz and Herrmann, 1980), flavanoids (Vosgen et al., 1980), catechins and phenyl propanoids (Kikuzaki et al., 1999). The flavonol content of allspice is low and consists mainly of quercetin glycosides (Vosgen et al., 1980). Three new galloylglucosides, (4S)-alpha-terpineol 8-obeta-D-(6-ogalloyl) glucopyranoside (4 )-alpha-terpineol 8-obeta-D-(6-o galloyl) glucopyranoside and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) propane-1, 2-diol 2-o-beta- The dried fruits should be stored in poly-lined corrugated cardboard containers or in airtight containers and kept in a cool, dry area with a maximum temperature of 21 C and maximum humidity of 70 . Excessive heat volatilizes and dissipates aromatic essential oils and high humidity tends to cake them. Dried fruits should be stored off the floor and away from outside walls to minimize the chances of dampness. The product has to be kept away from heavy aromatic materials. The...

Chemical structure

Spice Chemical Structure

The chemical character of thyme is represented by two main classes of secondary products, the volatile essential oil (Stahl-Biskup, 2002 Lawrence, 2003 and references therein) and the non-volatile polyphenols (Vila, 2002 and references therein). Owing to the excellent analytical techniques available today, both groups are fairly well known. In particular, the composition of the essential oil has been reported in numerous scientific publications. Since we are dealing with a natural product, the yield of essential oils and of the polyphenols as well as the proportions of individual constituents, vary. This is caused by intrinsic (seasonal and ontogenetic variations) and extrinsic factors (soil, climate, light). The data presented

Silica which strengthens nails

Fragrant foot soak The herbs and essential oils in this aromatic blend are astringent and antibacterial, helping to reduce sweatiness, fight odor and leave feet fresh and clean. Both rosemary and ginger are warming herbs and stimulate circulation of blood their uplifting scents raise the spirits. 2 Add baking soda, Epsom salts and essential oils. Mix well. Pour into a f spa or shallow dish big enough for both feet. Top up with extra water ai add ice. Super-soft powder Cornflour and arrowroot add a silken texture while the clay absorbs more than 200 times its weight in moisture. In addition, the essential oils eliminate odor-causing bacteria. To boost this powder's ability to stop sweatiness, try adding 1 tablespoon zinc oxide powder (available from your chemist).

Toxicology and disease

Rosemary is generally considered safe and devoid of toxic side effects if taken in recommended doses. However, there have been occasional reports of allergic reaction such as skin irritation. Pregnant and lactating women are advised not to use rosemary, as are pepole with epilepsy. Rosemary oil should be used with caution by persons suffering from hypertension, blood pressure or insomnia cfm). In vitro studies of liquid extract of rosemary ('Herbor 025') and a mixed oily extract of herbs such as rosemary, sage, thyme and oregano, though proven to be antiviral against HIV, is found to be cytotoxic too (Aruoma et al., 1996). Rosemary leaves in excess quantity can cause coma, spasm, vomiting and, in some cases, pulmonary oedema. Rosemary oil taken orally can trigger convulsions Rosemarych. html).

Main uses in food processing and perfumery

Virtually all essential oils produced are used in the food and perfumery cosmetics industries. Pelargonium, essential oils (EOs), obtained from different species, with a wide spectrum of chemical compositions, have shown considerable potential as antimicrobial agents (Lis-Balchin et al., 1995). Studies have been of 18 different Pelargonium petroleum spirit extracts (Lis-Balchin et al., 1998), as well as the more hydrophylic extracts in methanol, against four bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus. They showed that 'Attar of Roses', similar to commercial geranium oil with the main components citronellol and geraniol, was a very potent antibactericide, as was 'Lemon Fancy', owing to its high neral and geranial content. The petroleum spirit extracts resembled the activity of steam-distilled samples. Hydrophilic extracts proved to have more potent antibacterial activity, suggesting that flavonoids, tannins and other phenolics in the herb are...

Doityourself scalp massage

Blow-drying, straightening, curling and using harsh shampoos all take a toll on your hair. So do a poor diet and other lifestyle factors, such as stress, illness, hormonal fluctuations, alcohol and smoking, and inadequate exercise or sleep. Coax your hair into healthier shape with a nutrient-rich diet and hair-care products that are based on herbs and essential oils specific to your hair type. 2 Combine herbal liquid and shampoo. Add essential oils. Store in a plastic squeeze-bottle. Aromatherapy detangling spray This detangling spray keeps hair shiny and manageable during cold, dry weather or high humidity. The oils stimulate circulation to the scalp and balance sebum production.

Introduction and description

Spices Introduction

Medicine and aromatherapy as well as in the perfumes and flavour industries. Rosemary has culinary uses too. The leaves, twigs, value added products and whole plant extract are also valued as functional food (antioxidant) and botanical neutraceutical. Rosemary is also credited with insect repellent properties and is used in wardrobes to protect clothing. It is also used as an insect repellent herb (functional insecticide) in orchards, as a botanical pesticide, etc. Rosemary is tolerant to pruning and shaping, making it suitable for topiary, and is a valued potted indoor plant.


A member of the ginger family, this aromatic spice is native to India and grows in many other tropical areas including Asia, South America and the Pacific Islands. Cardamom seeds are encapsulated in small pods about the size of a cranberry. Each pod contains 17 to 20 tiny seeds. Cardamom has a pungent aroma and a warm, spicy-sweet flavor. It's widely used in Scandinavian and East Indian cooking. Cardamom can be purchased either in the pod or ground. The latter, though more convenient, is not as full-flavored because cardamom seeds begin to lose their essential oils as soon as they're ground. The seeds may be removed from the pods and ground, or the entire pod may be ground. A mortar and pestle make quick work of the grinding. If using cardamom to flavor dishes such as stews and curries, lightly crush the shell of the pod and add the pod and seeds to the mixture. The shell will disintegrate while the dish cooks. Be frugal when using cardamom a little goes a long way.

Other forms

For onion flavor the food processing industry also uses the concentrated essential oils of both onion and garlic. (See Flavorings chapter for a discussion of essential oils.) Essential oil of onion has 5,000 times more onion flavor than ordinary onion and garlic has about 2,000 times the flavor of fresh garlic. These are such powerful concentrates that they first need to be diluted in a neutral vegetable oil or mixed in some other medium to make them convenient in industrial operations. The food processing industry also uses oleoresins of onion and garlic to flavor your processed foods. (see Flavorings chapter for information on oleoresins.)

Garlics role

Though prolonged cooking considerably tames garlic, a milder flavor impact remains. The longer the cooking process, the more essential oils (that contain the principal flavor compounds) escape into the kitchen air. If you like a strong garlic flavor, it is best to add the garlic late in the saut ing or cooking process. Many recipes call for saut ing onion and garlic together. For more of a garlic impact, saut the onion first and only add the garlic during the last few minutes.


An infusion is an effective preparation method for delicate or fine plant parts, such as petals, leaves and other aerial parts. It is ideally suited to extracting water-soluble components from the plant and is often used for aromatic herbs that contain essential oils (such as peppermint, fennel and chamomile).

Herbal creams

To make medicated herbal creams at home, start with an unscented non-greasy cream base, such as sorbolene or vitamin E cream. Add some herbal tincture, using a ratio of I part tincture to 10 parts cream, or essential oil at 1 to 2 percent the weight of your base cream. Stir until your cream has an even consistency. (Some essential oils are unsuitable for topical use. so seek professional advice if you are not sure.)


Oil-soluble components can be extracted by infusing an herb in oil over an extended period of hours or days. The pure infused oil is then used for topical applications or added to a cream or ointment. Medicated infused oils are similar to (although much stronger than) culinary infused oils. They are quite different to the essential oils used in aromatherapy, which are commonly extracted from plants by distillation.

Use in food

Shaaya et al. (1991) analysed the fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents, were assessed against four major stored-product insects. The results showed that the compound linalool, a-terpineol and carvacrol and the essential oils of oregano, basil, Syrian marjoram and thyme were most active against Oryzaephilus surinamensis.


Caraway is another herbal medicine that has been traditionally used to relieve wind, bloating and flatulence. Like peppermint, it helps to decrease spasm in the muscles of the digestive tract, and the essential oils of the two herbs are sometimes combined in commercial products. l)OS (il Grind up to 1 teaspoon (2 g) caraway seeds to release the essential oil before infusing them in boiling water. Drink up to 3 cups per day. Alternatively, use commercial caraway oil capsules (often combined with peppermint) and follow the manufacturer's instructions. Products containing the essential oils of peppermint and or caraway are not recommended for infants, children, pregnant or breastfeeding women,

Studies in vitro

Almost all essential oils from spices and herbs inhibit microbial growth as well as toxin production. The antimicrobial effect is concentration dependent and may become strongly bacteriocidal at high concentrations. Gram-positive bacteria (spore- and non-spore-formers), Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts (Tables 3.1-3.3) and moulds (Ippolito and Nigro, 2003) are all affected by a wide range of essential oils. Well-known examples include the essential oils from allspice, almond, bay, black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, clove, coriander, cumin, garlic, grapefruit, lemon, mace, mandarin, onion, orange, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme. The active compounds of some of these essential oils are shown in Tables 3.2 and 3.4. Table 3.3 Some examples of microorganisms sensitive to the antimicrobial action of essential oils from herbs and spices Table 3.3 Some examples of microorganisms sensitive to the antimicrobial action of essential oils from herbs and spices Table 3.4 Examples of essential oils...


Many essential oils from herbs and spices are used widely in the food, health and personal care industries and are classified as GRAS substances or are permitted food additives (Kabara, 1991). A large number of these compounds have been the subject of extensive toxicological scrutiny and an example of the data available is shown in Table 3.6. However, their principal function is to impart desirable flavours and aromas and not necessarily to act as antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is possible that additional safety and toxicological data would be required before regulatory approval for their use as novel food preservatives would be granted.

L lavender

Too much lavender in a product often prompts thoughts of bath soap and aromatherapy. Lavender should always be a harmonizing flavor, not the primary middle note of the dish. Fresh lavender has a much smoother overall quality than the relatively harsh floral flavor of most dried lavender buds. Grinding dried buds with granulated sugar makes it possible to easily incorporate lavender into baked goods.

Lavender oil

Lavender essential oil can quickly relieve inflammation and swelling when applied to insect bites and stings. It also has antimicrobial activity to help prevent wounds from becoming infected. Its use in burns is reputed to have started when the French scientist Gattefosse (one of the pioneers of aromatherapy) stuck his hand in a nearby bowl of lavender oil after burning himself in his laboratory, and was intrigued by how quickly his skin healed. 0 DOS U.i Dab undiluted lavender oil onto insect bites or stings as quickly as possible after they occur. For wounds and burns, first cleanse the wound with an antiseptic solution to ensure that it's clean, then apply undiluted lavender oil to the affected area 3 times a day.


The berry oil contains all the odour principles of the ground spice and oleoresin but lacks some of the flavour principles. Essential oils from leaf oil and berry oil are used as a flavouring agent in meat products and confectioneries. The maximum permitted level of berry oil in food products is about 0.025 .

Normal skin

n herbal steam is simple and inexpensive. It gives u healthy glow naturally l Improving mirro-cirrulalion to the surface iii the skin ami flushing out the toxins and debris V steam also helps to open pores, making it easier fur your skin to absorb the essential oils anil aromatic herbs in the water. 2 Remove oil mixture from heat and add warmed Rescue Remedy mixture, beating vigorously with a small whisk or electric mixer set on low speed until cream thickens. Add essential oils and mix again. Allow to cool slightly before I se a humidifier in your bedroom to help your skin sta hydrated at night. Clean the filter regularly add essential oils such as jasmine lo help you relax. I se a humidifier in your bedroom to help your skin sta hydrated at night. Clean the filter regularly add essential oils such as jasmine lo help you relax.

Gift of the Magi

1 Combine oil, essential oils and the contents of the capsule in a dark glass bottle. treal painful swellings and other ailments. Steam distillation of the dry resin produces an essential oil valued in modern aromatherapy to treat wounds, scars, acne and bacterial and fungal infections. The oil is also an ingredient in cosmetics soaps and perfumes. 1 Sift soda, salt and cinnamon together to remove lumps. Add essential oils, then sift again. Store powder in an airtight container.

Oily hair

Cleanse oily hair with a refreshing, herbal-scented shampoo and use essential oils to encourage blood flow to the scalp. Natural vinegar rinses will help to reduce oiliness. especially if they are combined with astringent herbs. Aromatherapy dry shampoo Banish that greasy look in just a few seconds. Neem and sandalwood have a tonic effect on hair follicles, and orris root absorbs oil and impurities and also leaves behind a light floral scent.

Too nuAcJv AH

Combine beeswax, cocoa butter, almond and wheatgerm oils with honey in the top of a double boiler over low heat, until melted. Remove from heat. Gently heat rosewater. When both oil mixture and rosewater are lukewarm, whisk together. Using a mixer set on low speed, add the essential oils and continue to beat until creamy. Spoon into a wide-mouthed jar and store in a cool, dark place.

More Basic Support

There are three types of EFAs Omega-9 fatty acids are readily available in olive oil, but you need supplements to get adequate amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 oils. The former come from animal sources (fish and marine mammals primarily) and vegetable sources, such as flaxseed oil, which provides alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Omega-6, also known as gamma linolenic acid (GLA), is contained in borage oil and black-currant oil. I usually suggest one capsule of borage oil, one of fish oil and one of flaxseed oil. My Essential Oils Formula contains all of the above, and the minimum dose is two per day.


Materials that can be used for flavorings can be grouped as follows spices and herbs essential oils and their extracts fruits and fruit juices and aliphatic, aromatic, and terpene compounds. Spices and herbs consist of dried plant products that exhibit flavor and aroma. They are derived from true aromatic vegetable substances from which the volatile and flavoring principles have not been removed. Essential oils and their extracts are odorous oils obtained from plant material and have the major odor that is characteristic of that material. Most have poor water solubility and most contain terpenes (hydrocarbons of formula C10H16 and their oxygenated derivatives C10H16O or C10H18O) which contribute to the poor water solubility as well as possibly contributing to the off-flavor. Examples are essential oils of bitter almond, anise, and clove. Terpeneless oils are extensions of concentrated essential oils in which the unwanted terpenes are removed. These oils are usually more concentrated...

Using flavorings

The smell of cooking aroma in every corner of your house is a most enticing aroma. But it means that flavor compounds, that should have stayed in the pot, escaped all over the house. The trick to flavorful cooking is to keep those aromatic compounds in the pot where they belong with only the tiniest trickle escaping to whet appetites. If you add spices and herbs early in a long cooking process, much of the volatile essential oils find their way into the air, escaping with the hot steam. It is better to add them in the last quarter of the cooking period. This is also true for garlic. Onion is an exception that needs sauteing or a slight browning before it releases the maximum flavor through browning and caramelization. Too little time for the flavorings in the cooking pot is also unwise. The plant cells must have enough time to break down in the heat and release and activate the volatile oils. Flavor extracts (like almond extract) and essential oils don't need heat activation, in fact...

Betel vine

The varying taste of betel vine ranging from sweet to pungent is due to the presence of essential oils. The chief constituent of leaves is a volatile oil, known as betel leaf oil, and its amount varies in leaves from different varieties. The oil is of a clear yellow colour and is obtained from fresh leaves. The essential oil consists of euginol, cadinene, chavicol, chavibetol, cineole, sesquiterpene, allylpyrochavicol, caryophyllene, methyl euginol, hydroxy-chavicol, sitosterols, stigma sterols, etc. (Balasubrahmanyam et al., 1994). Fresh betel leaves are usually used for chewing. Leaves are ready for harvest in four to six months. The harvested leaves are packed moist in different types of well-aerated baskets and marketed. In some places the leaves are blanched or bleached and marketed. This process leads to some changes in the chemical composition of the essential oils (Table 5.6).

Nutmeg and mace

Hydrate Camphene

Nutmeg and mace are the two major primary products of Myristica fragrans and are commercially considered as spice. Nutmeg is the dried kernel of the seed and mace is the dried aril surrounding the seed. Both the spices have similar flavour. However, nutmeg is reported to be slightly sweeter than mace and is more preferred in food. Besides nutmeg and mace a number of other products are commercially important. Oleoresins, nutmeg butter and essential oils are also derived from M. fragrans and they find varied uses in the food, medicine and perfume industries. Nutmeg, mace, their oleoresins and essential oils are used in the food and beverage industries. Although whole nutmeg is available, ground nutmeg is more popular. The spice in the ground form is mainly used in the food processing industry. In South-East Asia, China and India, both the spices are used sparingly. Both nutmeg and mace are used in the pharmaceutical industries. Powdered nutmeg is rarely administered alone but it enters...

Sweet flag

The variation of essential oils and their major constituents in Acorus, with respect to season and geographical areas, was analysed. The major components of volatile oil obtained from the same part of the plants from different geographical areas exhibited no change in chemical structure and the best season for cropping was found to be June (Kumar et al., 2000). The calamus root oil obtained from the plants grown in various geographical areas such as China, Japan (wild and cultivated types), Asian regions, Canada, Bangladesh and also the commercial sample from Germany were subjected to analysis by various researchers. It was found that there is variation in the presence and quantity of the components in those samples (Lawrence, 2002). The comparative percentage composition of the major components of various collections of Japanese and Asian calamus root oil is given in Tables 5.2 and 5.3.

Winter savory

The essential oils in the rhizome make it useful as a carminative and stomachic. The pulped rhizome is also used on concussions and sprains. An improved cultivar (Amba) has been developed at the high altitude research station at Pottangi, Orissa (India). Lovage (Levisticum officinale Koth.) is a perennial plant that belongs to the family Apiaceae, and is a native of Europe. Centres of lovage cultivation are located principally in central Europe. It is also found cultivated in some areas in New England, USA. It has been grown over the centuries for its aromatic fragrance, its fine ornamental qualities and, to a lesser extent, its medicinal values. All parts of the plant, including the roots, are strongly aromatic and contain extractable essential oils.

Around the home

Orris root, a grayish powder with the aroma of violets, is derived from the root of the Florentine iris. It is used less for its scent than for its fixative ability - that is, it slows the evaporation of essential oils and prolongs the life of pot-pourris. Orris root can be sprinkled around the edges of areas of carpet or under rugs to deter, although not kill, moths and destructive carpet beetles. Many species of jasmine the delicate floral emblem of Indonesia, Pakistan and the Philippines are renowned for their superb sensuous scent, and the very valuable essential oil is produced in several countries for perfumery and aromatherapy. The delicate, star-shaped flowers of this evergreen vine are distilled to form an essential oil with a rich, warm floral sceni thai is important in perfumery. It blends well with other floral'-style oils, such as rose, and is particularly helpful in preparations for dry. irritated or sensitive skin. The oil is also used in aromatherapy as an...

Rosehip soap balls

2 Remove liquefied soap from heat and stir through aloe vera gel. honey, rosehip oil and essential oils, and the contents of vitamin E capsule. Mix thoroughly. Pour soap mixture into molds. (Decorative soap molds are available from craft suppliers. Alternatively, use silicone mini muffin or friand tins. Do not use metal, because it's too difficult to pop out the soap.)


Mustard oil is extracted from the black mustard seeds, which have been macerated in warm water by steam or water distillation. Crude oil is dark brown in colour and contains a large proportion of free fatty acids. The refined oil is bland and light brown in colour. The characteristic odour of mustard oil is due to sulphur-containing essential oils produced by the hydrolysis of glucosides contained in the seeds. The quality of the mustard oil depends on the contents of the fatty acids and their percentage therein. Mustard oil is hazardous because of its high content of allyl isothiocyanate.

Essential oil

Subramanian et al. (1972) studied the polyphenols of the leaves of marjoram and a new flavone designated majoranin, shown to be 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',6,8-trimethoxyl flavone and the 7-glucuronides of dinatin and diosmetin have been isolated. Salehian and Netien (1973) compared major components of French, Hungarian and Egyptian marjoram essential oils and found that the ratio between the percentage composition of terpinen-4-ol to linalool and linalyl acetate decreased in the order Hungarian, French and Egyptian marjoram. 4-ol (16.6 to 21.6 ) were characteristic of Origanum majorana var. tennifolium, while the main compound in O. dubium was carvacrol (81 ). Carvacrol (69.4 to 81.6 ) was also the major constituent of O. onites. Omer et al. (1994) identified nine components from the essential oils, and although there were qualitative and quantitative differences, the main constituent of all oils was terpinen-4-ol (26.7 to 41.6 ).


Eucalyptus Nuts

Largely indigenous to Australia, the eucalypls are rich In essential oils that are valued for both their medicinal applications and their fragrance, which ranges from lemon to peppermint and turpentine. (Corymbia citriodora syn. Eucalyptus citrlodora) and lemon ironbark (f. staigeriana), which has a fragrance of lemon and rosemary, and E. globulus, the most significant species. Narrow-leafed peppermint (f. radiata) yields a sweet, fruity essential oil with some camphor. The commercial chemotype of broad-leafed peppermint (f. dives) produces a pepperminty essential oil with sweet balsamic notes it is used in toiletries and aromatherapy. Gully gum E. smithii) essential oil is used in aromatherapy.

Processing issues

Spices can be added to foods in several forms as whole spices, as ground spices, as essential oils, as oleoresins or as prepared and filtered vinegar infusions. A more recent alternative is spice extracts. These consist of the flavour components of a spice, dispersed on one of several types of base, the most suitable bases for pickle and sauce use, for example, being salt or dextrose. Natural materials used in flavour creations are still most often isolated from essential oils. Extraction of oils and oleoresins is accomplished using a range of methods, including Carbon dioxide extraction from solid botanicals is now on a commercial scale. The advantages of the resulting essential oils are no solvent residue, less terpenes and enhanced black notes. Enzymatic treatment and fermentation of raw botanicals also result in greater yields and quality of essential oil. More recently, the use of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA on the bacteria and fungi used in fermentation has resulted...

Health Beauty

Although many people are sceptical about the benefits of herbal remedies and natural beauty products, others believe that there is much truth in what we consider to be old wives tales . Indeed, today homeopathic medicine and aromatherapy are often recognised as complementary allies to conventional medicine. Being completely natural, they tend not to have the negative side-effects that conventional medicines can have. Herbs are used in various ways to heal the mind and body and to promote health and well-being. They are used in HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE, a natural alternative to more traditional medicines, that treats ailments with many herbal based remedies. Herbs are also found in many of the oils used in AROMATHERAPY, a treatment where natural essential oils are used in healing, relaxation and treatment of stress related conditions. They are also used as ingredients for many beauty products. As mentioned above, herb oils are commonly used in aromatherapy. These essential oils generally...

Clary sage

The essential oil of clary sage is one of the most popular aromatherapy treatments for PMS, especially as it is also considered to have antidepressant, anti-fatigue and stress-relieving properties. Laboratory research supports the oil's use by demonstrating an antispasmodic action on uterine tissue, but the efficacy of this treatment has only recently been tested in human studies. In 2006, researchers conducted a clinical trial in which college students who suffered from period pain and menstrual cramps used either aromatherapy massage oil containing clary sage, lavender and rose essential oils massage without aromatherapy or no treatment at all. The symptoms of the women who received the aromatherapy massage were significantly less severe during the first 2 days of their period than the women in either of the other treatment groups.


These natural deodorants contain herbs and essential oils that keep you feeling dry and smelling Tresh by controlling surface bacterial growth the main trigger for underarm odor without the addition of worrisome chemicals. Orange blossom powder This silky, fine powder is gentle enough to use on the most delicate parts of the body. The three citrus-derived essential oils (neroli comes from orange blossoms, petit grain from the leaves and sweet orange from the peel) are uplifting. 1 Sift dry ingredients to remove lumps. Place in a bowl. Add essential oils and stir. Sift again. 2 Stir in essential oils. Sift again. Rosemary and thyme deodorant Coriander and hempseed essential oils both neutralize odor-causing bacteria, while sage, rosemary and thyme essential oils are high in chlorophyll and have strong, clean fragrances that effectively mask odors. Aromatherapy body powder Add aloe vera juice and the essential oils. Using an electric mixer, beat on low speed for 2 to 3 minutes. Spoon...

Flavoring basics

Natural foods range from one end of the taste spectrum to the other unflavored or mild foods on one end, like cereal grains, most meats, fish, poultry and milk moderately flavored, such as fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds and on the highly flavored end garlic, onion, herbs, spices, coffee and cocoa. In most cases natural organic compounds called aromatic essential oils that occur in food plants give flavorful foods their powerful taste impact. Just put a light dusting of cinnamon on your tongue and you understand flavor impact. If you want to know the true meaning of the term, dust a little hot ground chili on your tongue. You get a very powerful flavor (and pain) impact. Essential oils, also called volatile oils or aromatics, are responsible for the characteristic flavor and odor of a particular plant or seed. Each essential oil of an herb or spice is actually a collection of several organic ingredients from just a few in some to a couple of dozen in others. The essential oil of...

Essential Aromatherapy

Essential Aromatherapy

Have you always wanted to know what is aromatherapy? Here are some invaluable information on aromatherapy. I leave absolutely nothing out! Everything that I learned in order to improve my life with aromatherapy I share with you.

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