Antioxidant

Vitamins and Minerals as Antioxidants

Several vitamins and minerals are considered antioxidants. These include vitamins E and C, beta-carotene (which can be converted to vitamin A), other carotenoids (some may be converted to vitamin A and also play a role in cell devel opment), and the minerals selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese. What are antioxidants What do they do Every cell in our body needs oxygen to use the nutrients that food provides. However, when oxygen is used by cells, by-products called free radicals are formed. If allowed to accumulate, these free radicals can damage tissues, cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, the genetic material of cells). The process of oxidative damage can be observed as the browning that occurs when sliced apples or potatoes are exposed to the air or the rancid flavor that butter and cooking oils develop when stored for long periods. Environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke and ultraviolet light from the sun also contribute to the formation of free radicals in our...

Rosemary and sage as antioxidants

Rosemary is one of the most effective spices, widely used in food processing. It is the only spice commercially available for use as an antioxidant in Europe and the United States. One of the main potential uses is the suppression of warmed over flavour (WOF).1 However, because of their prime use as flavouring agents, rosemary extract products are not technically listed as natural preservatives or antioxidants. The first use of an extract of rosemary leaves as an antioxidant was reported by Rac and Ostric-Matijasevic in 1955.2 Berner and Jacobson3 obtained a patent in 1973 for production of an antioxidant extract from rosemary using oil as a solvent. Chang et al.4 reported a process for the extraction of rosemary and sage, followed by vacuum steam distillation in an edible oil or fat to obtain a colourless, odourless natural antioxidant. Bracco et al.5 described an extraction process using peanut oil, followed by micronization, heat treatment and molecular distillation. Inahata et al6...

Antioxidants

Antioxidants are chemical compounds that provide stability to fats and oils by delaying oxidation (which involves the loss of electrons, and the gain of oxygen). The oxidation of fats and oils is believed to occur as a series of chain reactions in which oxygen from the air is added to the free fat radical. The fat molecule loses a hydrogen atom and becomes an unstable free radical with a high affinity for oxygen. Oxygen is added and the fat molecule, to complete its electron structure, reacts with another fat molecule and removes a hydrogen atom. This produces another free radical and results in a chain reaction. The antioxidant functions by replacing the fat molecule as the hydrogen atom donor in order to complete the electron structure of the free radical, thus terminating the chain reaction. Thus oxidative rancidity, which results in off-flavors and odors, is retarded until the antioxidant supply is used. The most commonly used antioxidant formulations contain combinations of BHA...

Related titles on food science and technology from Woodhead Publishing

Antioxidants in food (ISBN 1 85573 463 X) Antioxidants are a major ingredient in food processing, both in controlling oxidation and in influencing other aspects of food quality as well as providing potential health benefits. This collection reviews antioxidant use, particularly the increasing role of natural antioxidants in food processing

Sources of further information and advice

Analysis, Allied Publishers Limited, New Delhi. yanishlieva-maslarova n V and heinonen I m (2001) Sources of natural antioxidants vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices, in Pokorny J, Yanishlieva N and Gordon M, Antioxidants in Food Practical Applications, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge.

The Hew American Plate

Vegetables and fruits contain vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals (unique plant substances) that help the body fight cancer. These substances have names like beta-carotene, lycopene and sulforaphane. They strengthen the body's immune system. Some eliminate free radicals that damage DNA. Others help to get rid of carcinogens.

Supplements Foods or Functional Foods

Supplements are concentrated forms of vitamins, minerals, fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, herbal products, enzymes, plant or animal tissue extracts, or hormones. Some supplements contain one or two known nutrients or a small group of nutrients such as B vitamins or antioxidants.

The Future Is Here Functional Foods

If your breakfast this morning included calcium-fortified orange juice and toast made with folate-enriched flour, you are a consumer of functional foods. Just what is a functional food As the fastest growing category of new food products, these are foods or food components to which manufacturers have added ingredients that are known or believed to promote health and prevent disease (see Chapter 4, What Do the Terms Fortified and Enriched Mean page 92). Although the name functional foods is new, the concept is not when it was discovered in the early part of the 20th century that some thyroid disease was caused by a deficiency of the mineral iodine, manufacturers began enriching table salt with iodine. Since that time, we have also seen vitamin D-for-tified milk, breakfast cereals fortified with a variety of vitamins and minerals, and the addition of preservatives that are themselves antioxidants to almost all processed foods (see Chapter 3, Cholesterol-Lowering Margarine, page 66). The...

Step 2 The Appliances

11) Electric Glass Tea Kettle - To get your two cups of fat burning, antioxidant rich, cancer preventing green tea per day, you'll need a convenient way to heat the water. But this type of teakettle not only makes it convenient, it optimizes the process by shutting off when the water comes to a boil. Temperatures too hot easily scald green tea and this kettle ensures the water is just right. Just to be safe, however, let the water cool for a minute before mixing it with the tea.

Parmiggiano Reggiano Parmesan

With the fiber, antioxidants, alkaline potential, and phytochemicals, people who recommend avoiding fruit altogether have got it all wrong Although fruit sometimes gets a bad reputation among dieters and the health conscious, we think the exclusion of fruit is downright crazy. With the fiber, antioxidants, alkaline potential, and phytochemicals people who recommend avoiding fruit altogether have got it all wrong (although unlimited fruit intake is equally crazy as fruit does have calories and a decent amount of sugars).

Section Ii Gourmet Recipes

So what do all these vitamins and minerals mean to you Well, getting these from your fruits and veggies means being able to avoid poorly designed multivitamin and multi-mineral supplements containing low quality vitamins and minerals. It means increasing your ability to stave off cancer. It means increasing your ability to stave off heart disease. It means having a strong antioxidant reserve (spinach ranks high on the oxygen radical absorbance capacity score). To add further support to this argument, it's interesting to note that spinach extracts are being used by doctors and scientists as functional foods to provide chemo-and central nervous system protection as well as anticancer and anti-aging functions.

Nuts and Seeds The Original Functional Foods

These little powerhouses are also densely packed with nutrients. Almonds are a rich source of calcium. Almonds, sunflower kernels and hazelnuts are particularly good sources of vitamin E. Nuts also provide a long list of other nutrients, including niacin, vitamin B6, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, copper and potassium, plus a number of phytochemicals, including many antioxidants.

Functional properties

It is believed that clove has antioxidant properties, which can neutralize free radicals associated with cancer. Antioxidant content varies depending on the type of clove product. Ground clove contains 1.8 , while in soluble fraction 1.4 (petroleum ether soluble fraction) and 1.7 (alcohol soluble fraction). Shahidi et al. (1995) reported that the antioxidant activity of ground clove, ginger, oregano, sage and thyme in meat lipids was concentration dependent, but clove was most effective, followed by sage and then rosemary. Ginger and thyme exerted the weakest effect.

Nutrient composition

A medium-sized raw carrot is an excellent source of beta-carotene, which is converted into vitamin A. Carrots are a relatively good source of fiber. In addition to beta-carotene, carrots contain two other carotenoids alpha-carotene and lutein. The carotenoids, which are responsible for the bright-orange color of carrots, have antioxidant properties and may help prevent cancer and heart disease. Lutein also has been looked at for its role in protecting the eye from free-radical damage and maintaining vision. Cooking carrots makes them more digestible and appears to increase the amount of vitamin A available for use in the body. However, the vitamin A content of fresh or frozen carrots is twice that of canned versions.

Uses of herbs and spices

Herbs and spices have tremendous importance in the way we live, as ingredients in food, alcoholic beverages, medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, colouring and also as garden plants. Spices and herbs are used in foods to impart flavour, pungency and colour. They also have antioxidant, antimicrobial, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In addition to the known direct effects, the use of these plants can also lead to complex secondary effects such as salt and sugar reduction, improvement of texture and prevention of food spoilage. The basic effects of spices when used in cooking and confectionery can be for flavouring, deodorizing masking, pungency and colouring (Table 1.2). They are also used to make food and confectionery more appetizing and palatable. Some spices, such as turmeric and paprika, are used more for imparting an attractive colour than for enhancing taste. The major colour components of spices are given in Table 1.3. Because of their antioxidant and

Vitamin A and the carotenoids

Vitamin A deficiency is a major cause of blindness in many less-developed nations, and the vitamin is important for healthy immune system function. Unfortunately oxygen and heat destroy vitamin A and related carotenoids. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant that is a vitamin A precursor. Beta-carotene is added to foods to make them more orange in color, but it is unstable when heated.

Other lipidsoluble vitamins

Vitamins D and K are fairly stable during food processing, and they are not commonly used in extruded human foods. Vitamin E and related tocopherols, however, perform as both vitamin and antioxidant. Tocopherol and retinyl palmitate decreased in puffed snacks containing either fish or partially-defatted peanut flour (Suknark, 1998). Rice bran tocopherol decreased with increasing extrusion temperature, and bran extruded at 120-140 C lost more tocopherols over a year's storage than did bran extruded at 110 C (Shin et al., 1997). Less than 20 of vitamin E was retained in extruded and drum-dried wheat flour (Wennermark, 1993).

Vitamin and Mineral Needs

Any increased vitamin and mineral needs can be met by eating according to the Food Guide Pyramid (Chapter 3, Figure 3-1). Particularly, increase the number of fruits and vegetables you eat as these foods are good sources of many vitamins and minerals, as well as antioxidants (see Chapter 3, Table 22, Table 2-3, and Appendix A). Antioxidant (see Glossary) nutrients may protect you from environmental stressors and may accelerate your recovery from exhaustive exercise. Fresh fruits and vegetables also provide potassium, which is lost during prolonged strenuous exercise (see Table 2-3).

Body lotions and moisturizers

This is a silky, exotically scented oil that provides luxurious, long-lasting moisture. Vitamin E revives your skin and fights free radicals, while manuka honey helps to heal any minor skin abrasions. The fragrance of sandalwood and orange calms the senses. Shea nut butter is made from the fruit of the shea (or karite) tree ( Butyrospermum parkii). which is indigenous to West Central Africa. It is rich in antioxidants such as vitamins A and E. plus countless nutrients that combine to provide your skin with deeply hvdrating effects. A versatile product, it has been used for centuries for culinary, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Traditionally, it has been regarded as sacred to women. In Africa, only village women may harvest the nuts and extract the butter, and profits from the enterprise are returned to them. Shea trees are an important resource for West Africa, w here they are grown wild, without the use of chemical pesticides.

Chelating Agents Sequestrants

Chelating agents are used to control the reactions of trace metals in foods to principally prevent discoloration, such as occurs in potatoes when iron reacts with phenolic compounds in the presence of oxygen. They are also used with antioxidants to complex trace metals, thus preventing the metal from acting as a catalyst in oxidative reactions. Application examples are the use of

Nutritional Supplements Dont Even Think of Getting Along Without Them

Vitanutrients can benefit even people at the peak of health who eat an excellent diet. (Unfortunately, no matter how well we eat, our depleted soil no longer provides all the nutrients fresh produce used to yield.) I would go so far as to say that vitanutrients could extend one's lifespan. I'll cite just one example to prove my point The antioxidant group of nutrients has consistently proven to protect the body from damage by free radicals-those destructive electrons that have been implicated in cancer and heart disease as well as in accelerating the natural aging process. Even a person who eats the best possible food is not living in a perfect environment. Moreover, air pollution, tobacco smoke and other environmental toxins assault our bodies daily. Consequently, a person can maintain good health longer by taking effective doses of such antioxidants as vitamins A, C and E, plus selenium, glutathione, CoQ10 and bioflavonoids. However, actually ingesting adequate amounts of...

Which Nutrients Should I Take

Atkins Basic 3 Formula contains all the ingredients in my basic multiple vitamin, known as Basic 1, although in somewhat different dosages (see table beginning below). Basic 1 is a good formulation when weight loss is not an issue. Basic 3, on the other hand, is designed to be taken as three tablets daily, one with each meal. Compared to Basic 1, it contains greater amounts of certain nutrients-including chromium, pantethine, selenium, vanadium and biotin-all of which play a role in regulating blood sugar and insulin, as well as in burning fat. We've also included additional amounts of antioxidants. Although you will certainly be able to find a good multivitamin that contains most of the ingredients in Basic 3, you may choose to purchase separately the individual substances I've just cited so you can take them in the desired amounts. Basic 3 is formulated with intestinal flora, which helps your body use the nutrients more easily. It contains the following Selenium is a powerful...

Flavor and appearance

Enzymes that cause oxidation that in turn causes surface browning are present in many fruits and vegetables. Food scientists call this process enzymatic browning, a process that is different from the browning reaction I discussed under Meat chapter. Enzymatic browning is the same reaction that makes nuts and seeds rancid (oxidizing the oils) and change the flavor of stored milk products. Food processors use antioxidants to retard oxidation. Blanching also stops browning by deactivating the enzymes, while refrigeration slows it drastically and freezing almost stops it. If you keep the fruit in your freezer a long time and the package is not airtight, oxygen can sneak in and allow the enzymes to do their nasty work. The easiest way to prevent browning in freshly cut-up fruit is to dip it into lemon juice. Any acid will do but lemon juice interferes least with the fruit flavor. Acid halts the enzymatic reaction. Antioxidant powders is another choice and are available near the canning...

Spensely Et Al 1972 Content Of Defatted Sesame Flour

BUDOWSKI P. (1950), 'Sesame oil, III. Antioxidant properties of sesamol', J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 27, 264-7. FUKUDA Y., OSAWA T. and NAMIKI M. (1981), 'Antioxidants in sesame seeds', J. Japanese Soc. Food Sci. Technol., 28, 461-4. FUKUDA Y., OSAWA T. and KAWAGISH S. (1988), 'Comparison of contents of sesamolin and lignan antioxidants in sesame seeds cultivated in Japan', Japanese Soc. Food Sci. Technol., 35, 483-8.

Charai Planta Medicinal

CHARAI M., FAID M. and CHAOUCH A. (1999), 'Essential oils from aromatic plants (Thymus broussonetti Boiss, Origanum compactum Benth, and Citrus limon (L) NL Burm) as natural antioxidants for olive oil,' J. Essential Oil Res, 11(4), 517-21. CHIPAULT J.R., MIZUNO G.R. and LUNDBERG W.O. (1956), 'Antioxidant and antimicrobial constituents of herbs and spices,' Food Technol., 10, 209-11. DEIGHTON N., GLIDEWELL S.M., DEANS S.G. and GOODMAN B.A. (1993), 'Identification by EPR spectroscopy of carvacrol and thymol as the major sources of free radicals in the oxidation of plant essential oils,' J. Sci. Food Agric., 63, 221-5. DOROFEEV A.N., KHORT T.P., RUSINA I.F. and KHMEL'NITSKII Y.V. (1989), 'Search for antioxidants of plant origin and prospects of their use,' Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Gosudarstvennyi Nikitskii Botanicheskii Sad, 109, 42-53. LAGOURI V. and BOSKOU D. (1996), 'Nutrient antioxidants in oregano,' Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 47(6), 493-7. LOLOS M., OREOPOULOU V. and TZIA C. (1999),...

Chemical composition

Sesamum Indicum Chemical Composition

Endogenous antioxidants Among the commonly used vegetable oils, sesame oil is known to be most resistant to oxidative rancidity (Budowski, 1950). It also exhibits noticeably greater resistance to autooxidation than would be expected from its content of tocopherols (vitamin E). This high stability to oxidation is often attributed to the presence of a large proportion of unsaponifiable matter. Moreover, the unsaponifiable matter itself includes substances such as sesamol and phytosterol that are normally not found in other oils. Sesamolin upon hydrolysis, yields sesamol. Sesame oil contans 0.5-1.0 sesamin (Budowski et al., 1951) and 0.3-0.5 sesamolin (Budowski et al., 1950), with only traces of free sesamol (Beroza and Kinman, 1955 Budowski, 1964). Sesamol is released from sesamolin by hydrogenation, by acid or acid bleaching earth or other conditions of processing and storage (Budowski and Markley, 1951 Beroza and Kinman, 1955). Free sesamol is, however, removed by some blending earths...

Berries Small Fruit Big Benefit

So, what's so great about berries Well, since these bad boys have some of the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity scores around (ORAC a measure of antioxidant power - see below), they should be your front line measure against oxidative stress and free radical damage.

Kawakishi S 1994 Herbs

Al-jalay, B., blank, G., MCCONNELL, B. and AL-KHAYAT, M. (1987) Antioxidant Activity of Selected Spices Used in Fermented Meat Sausage, J. Food Protection, 50(1) 257. KIKUZAKI, H. and nakatani, n. (1993) Antioxidant Effects of Some Ginger Constituents, J. Food Sci., 58(6) 1407-10.

Functional properties and toxicity

Nigella sativa L. has not shown the specific inhibitory activity against tyrosinase (Mukherjee et al., 2001). The oil has microbial activity and has been investigated as antimicrobial (Minakshi and Banerjee, 1999), antiococeptive (Abdel-Fattah et al., 2000) and carminative (El-Dakhakhny, 2000). Nigella oils have played a significant role for altering the liver damage induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice and helped in improving the immunological host system and to some extent with its antioxidant effect (Mahmoud et al., 2002). Recent studies had revealed that extract of Nigella sativa L. has a strong immunomodulatory and interferon-like activity (Medenica et al., 2000). It inhibits cancer and endothelial cell progression, and decreases the production of the angiogenic protein fibroblastic growth factor made by tumour cells.

The structure of this book

This book is the second volume for the series on Herbs and Spices and has two parts. The first part deals with health benefits of herbs and spices and the use of herbs and spices as antimicrobials and antioxidants. The second part deals with detailed information on individual spices. This covers a brief description, classification, production, cultivation, post-harvest handling, uses in food processing, chemical structure and functional properties of important compounds extracted and quality specifications. The crops covered are tree spices such as allspice and star anise, and important herbs such as chervil, coriander, oregano, parsley, rosemary and thyme. A few other spices such as vanilla and sesame are also included.

The Food Guide Pyramid

Following this program can add needed vitamins and minerals to your daily food intake cut your risk of heart disease, cancer and digestive diseases help control cholesterol prevent constipation and can help manage your body weight and percent body fat. Additionally, many fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants (see Glossary) and other nutrients that can be beneficial to your health. Some ideas to incorporate more fruits and vegetables in your diet can be found in Appendix A.

Main uses in food processing

The main uses of thyme in culinary and food processing are defined by the following properties of thyme components (i) odour and taste, (ii) antioxidant and (iii) antimicrobial activities. Also, fresh green thyme leaves can be used in culinary art as a decorative green herb. It is evident that food flavouring remains the main thyme application area, while its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties can be considered as the supplementary benefits of thyme products, which have been added to the foods. The possibility of successfully using all three benefits provided by thyme components, namely flavour, and prevention of microbial and oxidative spoilage, depends on product requirements, processing parameters and food producer skill. Slow flavour release in high-temperature processing Easy to handle and weigh accurately No labelling declaration problems Presence of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial components compared to natural herb Does not contain non-volatile antioxidants Some...

Bacon Sliced Fully Cooked Cured and Smoked Skinless

The fully cooked sliced bacon shall be prepared from a bacon belly that meets all the requirements necessary to produce Item No. 539. After cooking, the yield of the finished product must not exceed 40 percent. In addition, the slices shall be uniform in appearance and not less than 5.0 inches (12.5 cm) or more than 7.0 inches (17.5 cm) long. The slices shall not be cut or torn for more than one-half the width of the slice and shall not be overcooked or have any burnt edges or areas measuring more than 0.3 inch (7.6 cm) in any dimension. The slices shall not break or crack when the ends are brought together. There shall be no evidence of any off-odors or flavor. The finished product shall also adhere to all required standard of identity requirements such as antioxidants, salt, moisture, and protein content.

Introduction and description

Spices Introduction

Medicine and aromatherapy as well as in the perfumes and flavour industries. Rosemary has culinary uses too. The leaves, twigs, value added products and whole plant extract are also valued as functional food (antioxidant) and botanical neutraceutical. Rosemary is also credited with insect repellent properties and is used in wardrobes to protect clothing. It is also used as an insect repellent herb (functional insecticide) in orchards, as a botanical pesticide, etc. Rosemary is tolerant to pruning and shaping, making it suitable for topiary, and is a valued potted indoor plant.

Have a Heart

Plant-based diets are cholesterol-free and lower in total fat, especially saturated fat, than meat-based diets. They are higher in fiber, antioxidants, and phytochemicals. Animal products are the primary source of saturated fkts, which cause the liver to produce more cholesterol, raising LDL ( bad cholesterol) levels dramatically. Saturated fat does not occur in the plant kingdom in any significant amount, except in tropical oils, such as coconut and palm oil, and in cocoa butter. Animal products contain no fiber, whereas a plant-based diet is high in fiber, which carries excess hormones and cholesterol out of the body.

Avocado

Avocados are known for their high fat content however, most is monounsaturated fat. They are low in saturated fat and are sodium- and cholesterol-free. Avocados are a good source of dietary fiber. They also contain lutein, one of the carotenes that is a phytochemical with antioxidant properties.

Zinc and Magnesium

Now, sure you've heard of the benefits of omega 3's. But we're not just talking about omega 3s here. We're talking about 2 specific fats found in fish oil -EPA and DHA. EPA and DHA are 2 fats found only in marine animals (salmon oil is the best known source) that have been found to offer benefits such as powerful antioxidant, anti-cancer, & anti-inflammatory effects increased lean mass, decreased fat mass better blood sugar management, and more.

Applications

In a parallel bar screw press to remove the oil. Extrusion prior to screw pressing greatly increases throughput of the expeller over the rated capacity. Oil and meal produced by this method are remarkably stable because extrusion also releases natural antioxidants in oilseeds. This process is used around the world for processing raw soybeans into full fat soybeans and partially defatted soybean meal. Cereal grain fractions and other starchy raw materials can be preceded by dry extrusion. Applications include processing of

Giving It a Number

One way to look at nutrient value is to measure the concentration of antioxidants in food. Antioxidants are a special group of vitamins and phytochemicals that protect your cells from the ravages of environmental pollution, stress, disease and aging. Researchers at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston studied the antioxidant capacity of common vegetables and assigned each vegetable an antioxidant score. I've taken that score and divided it by the number of grams of carbohydrate in the same-size serving of each vegetable or fruit and thus computed what I now call the Atkins Ratio. The higher the number, the more antioxidant protection you get per gram of carbohydrate. Talk about bang for your buck. If you used this tool to maximize your nutrient intake and

Berries Are Best

One important lesson learned from the Tufts study previously mentioned is that, as evaluated by the Atkins Ratio, the lumping together of fruits and vegetables as being essentially equal in benefits is not true. Relatively speaking, vegetables have considerably more antioxidant value per carbohydrate gram than fruits and thus represent a much more valuable dietary choice. Even so, after the Induction phase of Atkins, you may use some of your daily carb ration to add the more valuable fruits to your menu. Berries, including blueberries, raspberries, blackberries and strawberries, are the fruits highest in antioxidant value. Berries are also lower in carbs than other fruit and are relatively low on the glycemic index scale. Moreover, the phytonutrients in certain fruits can slow pre-cancerous growths.

Cook Smart

Your family will flip for our flab-u-less flapjacks Made with oat bran to boost the fiber content and fresh, antioxidant-rich blueberries, they're a nutritious weekend breakfast treat. Want something cool and creamy Muesli (pronounced MYOOZ-lee), a super-nutritious, high-fiber blend of oats, yogurt, nuts and fresh fruit, was developed about 100 years ago by Dr. Bircher-Benner, a Swiss nutritionist. Commercially made muesli can be loaded with saturated fat, since it's often laced with heavy whipping cream. Our slimmed-down version uses low-fat yogurt and just a touch of light cream to keep the smooth texture while cutting back on fat. Oat-standing

Schisandra

Although there is less scientific evidence to support its use, schisandra may have similar liver-protecting properties to milk thistle. Laboratory studies demonstrate a number of antioxidant effects and suggest that it, too, has the ability to prevent cell damage by harmful substances and to reduce some of the symptoms associated with liver disease. 0 I S .( Take the equivalent of 500 to 1500 mg of the dried fruit 3 times per day, in either tablet or tincture form.

Ginkgo

Ginkgo is the world's most popular memory tonic, and is believed to work via a number of mechanisms, including improving blood flow to the brain, acting as an antioxidant and helping to prevent injury to blood vessels. It may help delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, so has the ability to improve the quality of life for sufferers of these debilitating conditions. Ginkgo can also be taken for more minor memory problems or as a supportive tonic during study periods. However, there is little scientific evidence available to help us understand whether the herb is also beneficial in healthy people. 0 DOS GK Look for supplements standardized for their content of the important active constituents ginkgo flavone glycosides, ginkgolides and bilobalides, with a daily dose of 120 mg of a concentrated (50 1) extract, providing the equivalent of 6 g of the dried herb. Ginkgo takes a month or two to reach Its maximum effect, so use it for 6 to 12 weeks before...

Kohlrabi

Raw kohlrabi is a good source of fiber. Both raw and cooked forms also contain antioxidants and bioflavonoids. Kohlrabi is high in vitamin C. Raw kohlrabi is a good source of fiber. Both raw and cooked forms also contain antioxidants and bioflavonoids.

Grapeseed

Vitis vinifero Antioxidant support for blood vessels Grapeseed extract is rich in a potent group of antioxidants collectively referred to as oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). OPCs help to maintain the integrity of the blood vessels and stabilise the capillary walls, so they may be beneficial for a wide range of circulatory problems. In people with chronic venous insufficiency, grapeseed extract has been shown to relieve symptoms such as itchiness and leg pain in as little as 10 days,

Hawthorn

Herbalists regard hawthorn as the most important of all cardiovascular remedies, with a protective action on the heart and its function. It is prescribed for a range of cardiovascular problems, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, angina, irregular heartbeat and heart failure. Numerous clinical trials support the use of hawthorn as an adjunctive treatment for heart failure, and in this context it is documented to help reduce blood pressure as well as improve other symptoms, such as tiredness and shortness of breath. Some of hawthorn's active constituents have potent antioxidant activity, and these compounds may be responsible for the herb's cholesterol-lowering effects, helping

Screw wear

High-fiber foods may abrade the interior of the extruder barrel and screws, resulting in increased mineral content. Potato peels extruded under higher temperature had as much as 38 more total iron after extrusion (Camire et al., 1993). Extruded corn, which is fairly low in fiber, showed no difference in total, elemental, or soluble iron, even in the presence of antioxidant additives (Camire and Dougherty, 1998). Iron content in extruded potato flakes increased with barrel temperature (Maga and Sizer, 1978). Screw wear iron had high bioavailability in rats fed extruded corn and potato (Fairweather-Tait et al., 1987). Extrusion and any resulting changes in mineral content did not reduce utilization of iron and zinc from wheat bran and wheat in adult human volunteers (Fairweather-Tait et al., 1989).

Phenolic compounds

The red and blue anthocyanin pigments provide attractive colors and are believed to serve as antioxidants that protect vision and cardiovascular health (Camire, 2000). Blueberry anthocyanins were significantly reduced by extrusion and by ascorbic acid in breakfast cereals containing cornmeal and sucrose (Chaovanalikit, 1999). Polymerization and browning may also have contributed to anthocyanin losses.

Korean ginseng

Tomatoes - along with other red- and pink-colored fruit and vegetables, such as guava, watermelon and pink grapefruit - contain a pigment called lycopene. which has important benefits for men's health. Population studies suggest that men whose diets are highest in tomatoes have up lo 40 percent less chance of developing proslate cancer than those men whose tomato consumption is low. As a potent antioxidant, lycopene also supports the heart and blood vessels and may help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. For optimal absorption, lycopene needs to be consumed at the same time as a little oil. so lomato-based products such as pasta sauces and tomato paste are valuable inclusions in your diet.

Nutrients for skin

A good multivitamin and mineral supplement helps to provide your complexion with all the nutrients it needs. Extra amounts of certain vitamins may be indicated in particular conditions notably A (which rebuilds tissue and balances sebum production). C (which your body uses to produce collagen, the connective tissue that keeps skin firm) and E (which reduces wrinkle formation, protects skin cells and prevents UV-light damage). These five supplements combai the aging process because they are antioxidants or natural anti-inflammatory agents. Alpha lipoic acid is a powerful antioxidant that helps defend against damage caused by free extra-virgin olive oil and flaxseed and antioxidant-rich herbs and spices, such as green tea, ginger and cumin. To keep skin hydrated, it's also smart to drink a minimum of eight glasses of water a day. Coenzyme 010 is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. It is helpful for gum health Grapeseed contains antioxidant oligomeric proanthocyanins (OPCs)...

Normal skin

Green-tea toner This herbal blend is healing and mildly astringent. Vinegar restores the skin's pH balance, the antioxidant-rich green tea is calming and hydrating, and the fennel adds a light licorice-like scent. Elderflower is mild enough to suit the most sensitive skin and helps to reduce redness and inflammation. Install water filters in your sink and shower and place air purifiers in rooms that are used frequently. Take a skin-clearing herb such as nettle (right) in tincture form. Drink 2 cups of green tea daily to scavenge free radicals and keep skin vibrant.

Altitude

Vitamin and mineral needs are likely to increase at altitude. In particular, the increased metabolic rate and the lack of oxygen can increase the production of harmful free radicals. Preliminary research indicates that taking 400 IU per day of vitamin E, an antioxidant, at high altitude reduces free radical production.

General uses

Parsley, with its mystic aura being wrapped in folk tradition, is said to increase female libido, also help in promoting menstruation and ease the difficulties of childbirth (Review of Natural Products, 1991 Tyler, 1994). Parsley juice can be used in treating hives and other allergy symptoms it also inhibits the secretion of histamine. Parsley has also been used as a liver tonic and helped in the breaking up of kidney stones. The German Commission E has approved parsley as a preventive measure and also for treatment of kidney stones. The parsley root can be used as a laxative and also helps to eliminate bloating. It can reduce weight by reducing excess water gain. The root can be used to relieve flatulence and colic, due to its carminative action. Parsley is rich in such minerals as calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, potassium, iron and vitamins such as A, C and niacin (Review of Natural Products, 1991 Gruenwald, 1998 Blumenthal, 1998 Tyler, 1994, 1998 Marczal et al, 1977). Parsley can be...

Innovate

As long as manufacturers' innovations meet emergent consumer needs then brands should maintain first mover advantage for longer. Health and convenience are two consumer mega-trends that are permanently attractive to diverse consumer groups. An example of such as product is Fit for Fun Jo' Active Jogurt mit Vegamin Musli from Rhongold Molkerei in Germany launched in January 2004. The yogurt and muesli is presented in a plastic partitioned tray to keep the yogurt separate from the muesli for convenience and freshness. The yogurt is made with red currants, bilberries, strawberries and sour cherries, all of which are premium ingredients with antioxidant properties. The muesli contains 'health-promoting plant materials, which are claimed to

Dry skin

Softening rice bran scrub Finely ground oats and powdered rice bran are gentle exfoliants that are suitable to use on dry skin, providing moisture as well as safely sloughing off any dead skin cells. Green tea provides additional antioxidant protection while gently tightening the pores. Honey is a time-honored treat for dry skin. Its unique texture holds the key to its many benefits. The high sugar content makes it a natural humectant. meaning it pulls moisture from the air into the skin, helping to keep it hydrated and plump, and because it's so thick, it's occlusive, which means it locks moisture in. In addition, its antioxidant properties fight free radicals from the sun and pollution that age skin. Its low pH makes it acidic and provides a mild antibacterial effect.

Djuvec od praziluka

Dip, to To fully or partially immerse a solid material or food into liquid or semi-liquid, either to coat the solid or to absorb some of the liquid into it diphenyl A potent fungicide permitted for use in the wrappings of and in packing cases for oranges and tomatoes. Also called biphenyl, phenylbenzene. See also E230 diphenylamine A food additive with no E number or UK number used as an antioxidant

Tamarind

The testa is reported to contain 40 water solubles, 80 of which is a mixture of tannin and colouring matter (FRI, 1955). In the production of TKP or the jellose, large quantities of testa are left as a residual by-product. The use of testa in dyeing and tanning has been suggested. Several authors (Rao and Srivastava, 1974 Glicksman, 1986 Tsuda et al., 1994, 1995 Sankaracharya, 1998) have suggested that seed coat, a by-product of tamarind gum industries can be used as a safe and low-cost antioxidant for increasing the shelf-life of foods by preventing lipid peroxidation. Studies have been carried out on the utilization of spent (detanned) tamarind seed testa as a substrate to grow Pleurotus florida, in order to convert organic wastes into biofertilizer and also to assess the

Properties

Mustard flour has preservative and antioxidant properties in addition to providing flavour and colour. In salad dressings, the most important property of the spice is its emulsifying function, binding water and oil phases as well providing viscosity. Mustard's fixed oil, which amounts to 30-35 by weight, is extracted by the cold pressed method. The oil is used for cooking in India and other Asian countries, including China and Japan

Vitamins

Vitamins are small but complex molecules. In addition to helping us to use and store energy from macronutrients, they assist the molecules responsible for vision to perform their function, they serve as regulatory hormones for bone formation, and they act as antioxidants to preserve cellular function (see Vitamins and Minerals as Antioxidants, page 31). The Food Guide Pyramid is based on the DRIs. It tells us the number of servings, in each group of foods, that will supply us with the recommended allowance of most of the vitamins. Nutrition research also has begun to support the idea that a few of the vitamins and minerals, notably those referred to as antioxidants (see Vitamins and Minerals as Antioxidants, page 31), may provide even more benefit if taken in quantities somewhat greater than the recommended amounts. This idea raises some questions. Is there such a thing as too much of a vitamin Should these extra vitamins come from food, or is it okay to take a supplement if you just...

Turmeric

In Ayurvedic medicine, turmeric has been used for centuries as a topical treatment for psoriasis and other inflammatory skin disorders. Modern Western herbalists sometimes also prescribe it internally for the well-documented antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immune-stimulating properties of both turmeric and a yellow pigment it contains, called curcumin. As the herb is also a liver and gallbladder tonic, this use reflects the traditional view that cleansing the body of toxins can help to resolve chronic skin problems. 0 I )( IS ( .1 Mix ' 2 teaspoon powdered turmeric with cold water and drink it 2 to 3 times per day for up to 4 weeks at a time. For topical use, mix V2 cup (50 g) turmeric powder with 1 teaspoon baking soda and some hot water and apply as a poultice. For more detailed instructions, see page 194.