The Fat Fast

The rationale behind the Kekwick diet is crystal clear It forces the body into lipolysis so it burns its stores of fat. Lipolysis cannot take place if there is a significant source of glucose. Since all carbohydrates and some protein convert to energy by way of glucose, eliminating almost everything but fat from the diet forces even the most resistant body into lipolysis. That explains the ninety percent dietary fat component of the Kekwick diet. Lowering the caloric intake accelerates the need...

Guidelines for Making Gelatin Salads

It is important to use the right amount of gelatin for the volume of liquid in the recipe. Too much gelatin makes a stiff, rubbery product. Too little makes a soft product that will not hold its shape. Basic proportions for unflavored gelatin are 2Y2 ounces dry gelatin per gallon (19 g per liter) of liquid, butyou will almost always need more than this because of acids and other ingredients in the recipe. Basic proportions for sweetened, flavored gelatin are 24 ounces per gallon (180 g per...

The Baking Process

The changes undergone by a dough or batter as it bakes are basically the same for all baked products, from breads to cookies and cakes. You should know what these changes are so you can learn how to control them. The stages in the baking process take place as follows. 1. Formation and expansion of gases. Some gases are already present in the dough, as in proofed bread dough and in sponge cake batters. As they are heated, the gases expand and leaven the product. Some gases are not formed until...

Wild Mushrooms

Are Fairy Ring Mushrooms Edible

For some people the collection of wild mushrooms is simply an adjunct to an enjoyable walk in the countryside, but for others their collection and sale are a profitable hobby or even a full-time business. Anyone who eats or intends to eat wild mushrooms must be knowledgeable about species with unpleasant flavors or textures and, more importantly, species that can lead to serious poisoning or even death. Some mushrooms found growing in the wild are not actually indigenous but have found their...

Conventional Classification Of Spice

Peter, Kerala Agricultural University (formerly at Indian Institute of Spices Research) The Geneva-based International Standards Organisation (ISO) defines spices and condiments as Vegetable products or mixtures thereof, free from extraneous matter, used for flavouring, seasoning and imparting aroma in foods. Any of various aromatic vegetable productions as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, allspice, ginger, cloves, etc., used in cookery to season and to flavour sauces, pickles, etc. a...

Guidelines for Making Fruit Salads

Fruit salads are often arranged rather than mixed or tossed because most fruits are delicate and easily broken. An exception is the Waldorf salad, made of firm apples mixed with nuts, celery, and a mayonnaise-based dressing. 2. Broken or less attractive pieces of fruit should be placed on the bottom of the salad, with the more attractive pieces arranged on top. 3. Some fruits discolor when cut and should be dipped into an acid such as tart fruit juice. See pages 680-684 for pre-preparation...

Other bakery ingredients

5.1 Is it true that yeast requires oxygen before it can work correctly As long ago as 1875, Louis Pasteur showed that fermentation could take place in the complete absence of oxygen. He also showed that the presence of oxygen inhibited fermentation but increased yeast growth and respiration. Pasteur's observation that 'fermentation is life without air' is a well-known quotation in food science. If oxygen is introduced in increasing quantities into a fermenting sugar solution, fermentation slows...

Fruit Leathers

Another way to dry fruit, as well as certain vegetables, is to leather them. Leathers are lightweight, high in nutrition, and easy to store and pack for hikes and camping. They are a good way to make use of overripe fruits, a good healthful candy for the kids, and a good liner for a cobbler. Apricots and peaches make the nicest leathers, but you can make good ones from pears, plums, rhubarb, unseeded berries, and many other foods or combinations of foods. Overripe Fruit Leather All the rule...

Chinese Names Of Mushrooms

Chinese common names, scientific names, and English common names of edible and medicinal mushrooms known from China. Some of the mushrooms listed are not mentioned in the text because of their relatively minor importance outside of China. Additional information is provided in the text for many of the more important examples. English common names are given only for those species for which they are available. t Species known or suspected to be mycorrhizal. c Cultivated species. * Name formulated...

Salad Bars And Buffet Service

Salad bars are frequent fixtures in restaurants and are popular with both customer and restaurateur.The customer enjoys being able to custom make a salad with selections from a large bowl of greens, smaller containers of assorted condiments, and a variety of dressings.The restaurateur likes them because they take some of the pressure off the dining room staff during service. Many restaurants have designed unique salad bars that have become almost a trademark. Others may not have salad bars as...

Plate and Serve Hot Appetizers

Hot Appetizer

Appetizers should be presented in an attractive, functional way. Appetizers served at the table, in a buffet, or at a cocktail party provide a chance for creative plating. The art of serving hot appetizers to each individual at the table depends on the appetizer. For example, brochettes could be served on a small plate, with a garnish to the side. When you serve appetizers at the table, take the opportunity to make each plate or bowl a special presentation. J A Hot Idea Hot appetizers can be...

Cookie Characteristics And Their Causes

Cookies come in an infinite variety of shapes, sizes, flavors, and textures. Characteristics that are desirable in some are not desirable in others. For example, we want some cookies to be crisp and others to be soft.We want some to hold their shape and others to spread during baking. In order to produce the characteristics we want and to correct faults, it is useful to know what causes these characteristics. Cookies are crisp if they are very low in moisture.The following factors contribute to...

Recipe Yield and Conversion

A standardized recipe that is followed correctly will produce a specific yield and number of portions. The yield can be described by weight, volume, pan size, and or number of portions. For example, an AP 20-pound roast will yield an EP 15-pound roast or thirty 8-ounce portions. A recipe for cream of broccoli soup will yield two gallons, or thirty-two 8-fluid-ounce portions. A recipe for lasagna will yield four 200 pans and, when cut 4 X 6, will yield 96 portions. A freshly baked apple pie...

Yeast Dough Production

Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. Demonstrate the baking of quality Illustrate how to cool, store, and proper mixing and careful preparation. causes of failure when preparing yeast Use this sequence chart to list the four stages of baking in sequence. Graphic...

Sanitation Check

Never apply an egg wash to a product that has already been baked. The egg will remain uncooked, presenting the risk of salmonella bacteria. CRITICAL THINKING When should you apply an egg wash to the product and longer baking times generally yield a darker crust color than lower temperatures and shorter baking times. An egg wash can add color to a crust that must be baked at a low temperature or for a short time. Egg washes should never be added to baked goods after baking. This can create a...

Cauvain Sponge Cake Technology

CAUVAIN, S.P. and YOUNG, L.S. (2000) Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality Water control and effects, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK. TELLOKE, G.W. (1984) The mixing of cake batters. FMBRA Report No. 114, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, UK. 3.7 We are making 'all-butter' cakes but find that after baking they lack volume and have a firm eating character. Why is this and is there any way to improve the cake quality Butter is often chosen in cakemaking because of its quality attributes related to flavour...

Baking the Bread What Heat does

Baking seems simple to us put the well-risen, proofed dough in the hot oven and take it out when it is fully baked. If all went well (and there is no reason why it shouldn't), we place a still-steaming, irresistibly-perfumed, brown-crusted, mouth-wateringly beautiful loaf of bread on a wire rack, and we are ready to cut into it after a short cooling period. But the baking process is anything but simple. There is a series of very complex chemical reactions and physical processes that happen...

What are the critical properties of fats for making bread cakes and pastries

To answer this question it is first necessary to be clear about the definition of a fat. In the bakery this is usually the term given to a material that is a blend of liquid oils and solid fats from different sources, usually vegetable in origin. Podmore (1997) provides a comprehensive review of the nature and structure of fats. The basic building blocks of fats are the fatty acids, of which there are three. The fatty acids of the triglyceride may be the same as one another or different. All...

What is the sugarbatter method of cakemaking

With this cakemaking method a batter is formed based on an emulsion of oil in water with air bubbles trapped in the fat phase. The other ingredients are dissolved or dispersed in the water phase. The fats and sugar are creamed together until the mixture is light. Usually this takes about 10 minutes but does depend on the temperature and creaming qualities of the fat and the type of mixer used. Most commercial bakers mix the batter to a fixed specific gravity (see 13.4). The liquid egg is then...

We have been experiencing some variation in crust colour on our bread products What causes bread crust colour and why

The crust colour in bread is principally formed by Maillard-type reactions involving reducing sugars and amino compounds (free amino acids and terminal amino-groups in soluble proteins). For colour formation you need both factors to be present in appropriate amounts. A small amount of the main reducing sugar, maltose, may be present in the flour but in fermentation, proving and the early stages of baking the alpha- and beta-catalysed hydrolysis of the starch in the flour increases the amount...

Bakeshop Formulas and Equipment

Sound Absorbing Area Rug For Piano

Stay Engaged One way to stay engaged when reading is to turn each of the headings into a question, then read the section to find the answers. For example, Use a Balance Scale might be, How do you properly use a balance scale Describe the function of various bakeshop equipment. Baking requires precise measurement and accuracy to achieve a good result. It also requires special baking equipment to produce professional quality products. As you read, use this chart to list the three different types...

Food Spices Mail

Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India and K. Nirmal Babu, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India 2 The functional role of herbal spices M. R. Shylaja and K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India 2.3 Production, consumption and processing 2.5 Sources of further information 3 Herbs and spices and antimicrobials C. C. Tassou, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Greece, and G.-J. E. Nychas and P. N. Skandamis, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece 3.2 Barriers...

What is the meaning of the term syneresis when applied to bread

Syneresis is the name given to a particular physical or colloidal change that takes place in starch and other gels as they age. It is caused by crystallisation or aggregation of polymers, causing loss of water from the surface of components. It is common with some starch gels, particularly those subjected to freezing and thawing. The released water may evaporate to be absorbed by other components by diffusion or vapour phase transfer, or may be lost from the product component, causing it to dry...

Finding Substitutes for Favorite Foods

One of the best don't-fall-off-the-program techniques is to eat foods that substitute for a highly desired food. If you lust after any of the above, or for blintzes, lasagna, Yorkshire pudding or even chocolate truffles, ice cream, cheesecake or strawberry shortcake, the answer lies in using the ingenious substitutes for these foods I've provided in the recipe section or through our website at www.atkinscenter.com. Learn to use them. They can be just as much a part of your menuplanning as...

Broilers And Salamanders

Salamander Above Range

Broilers are sometimes called overhead broilers to avoid confusing them with grills. Overhead broilers generate heat from above, and food items are placed on a grate beneath the heat source. Broiling is a favorite way of preparing steaks, chops, chicken, and many other items. Heavy-duty broilers produce very high heat and consume vast quantities of energy. Some broilers are said to go as high as 2,000'F (1,100'C) at the burner. Foods must be watched closely to avoid burning. Cooking temperature...

Which Is Basted To Baked Lean Fish To Help Prevent It From Drying Up

Fish, which contain high-quality protein, are a valuable source of minerals and essential vitamins A, B, and D. In general, the mineral content of fish (magnesium, calcium, phosphorous, iron, copper, and iodine) is similar to that of beef, except that the iodine content of fish is higher. The fat content of fish varies, but pound for pound, fish have about half the calories of beef and pork. Fish are generally classified as finfish or shellfish. Finfish are further divided into two...

Hatching Eggs in an Incubator

Homemade Plywood Kerosene Lamp Incubator

The most productive modern chicken breeds in terms of meat and eggs are carefully selected genetic strains that won't go broody. So if you want more of them, you have to buy them again from the commercial hatchery or incubate their eggs yourself. Home incubation is actually a practical option, especially with the inexpensive, but functional, small incubators available for sale. Even the smallest size, which will hold about a dozen eggs, can keep them adequately warm, humidified, and turning....

The Modified Straight Dough Method

I Combine the fat, sugar, salt, milk solids, and flavorings in the mixer. Mix well, but do not whip. Add eggs one at a time, as they are absorbed into the mixture. Add eggs one at a time, as they are absorbed into the mixture. Q Add the rest of the liquids and mix briefly. Q Add the flour and the yeast last.

A Loaf Bread

Grease the bottom of deep pans, such as loaf pans. Prepare the loaf bread batter using either the creaming or blending method. The choice will depend on the formula. Heat a conventional oven to 400 F (204 C). Scale the appropriate amount of loaf bread batter into the greased pans. Allow the batter to rest. However, if the leavening agents are not used within a short time, they will deteriorate, or go down in quality. This will result in low-quality baked products. The money saved buying bulk...

Cutting Techniques

Vegetable Cutting Techniques

Different parts of the blade are appropriate for different purposes, as shown in Figure 7.7. (Note Prying off bottle caps is not a function of any part of the knife.) Using different parts of the knife blade. Using different parts of the knife blade. (a) The tip of the knife, where the blade is thinnest and narrowest, is used for delicate work and small items. (b) The center of the blade is used for most general work. (c) The heel of the knife is used for heavy or coarse work, especially when...

Harvesting Storing and Using Wheat

When to Harvest Wheat is one of the slower grains to mature it takes winter wheat 40-50 days from heading to harvest. The wheat is close to harvest time when it has grown tall, has headed out with a big bushy top full of those wonderful grain seeds, and has started looking dry and turning yellow all over (some varieties turn a brownish red). How to Harvest To harvest by hand, do it at this time, when the straw is just turning yellow and the grain can be dented but not mashed (seed at 20-35...

Prepare Pie Dough For A Single And A Double Crust

Images Faulty Pastry Dough

Whether you are preparing dough for a single crust pie or a double crust pie, the mixing procedure is the same. The first step you will need to do is to a. Measure or weigh the ingredients. You have already learned how to measure or weigh ingredients, but there is one caution that needs to be emphasized. That is, do it accurately. b. Prepare ingredients for use. Recipe card 1-1 shows the ingredients you will need to prepare the dough for a pie crust. Once you have gathered the ingredients in...

DoItYourself Cosmetics

Here's another whole category of environmental poisons that we could do away with. In Japanese the words for pretty and healthy are the same. Once when I was bemoaning my adolescent imperfections, my mother said, To be young is to be beautiful. At the time I thought she was talking nonsense. Now I'm the age she was then and I understand the truth of it. The lily doesn't need to be gilded. My father taught that beauty was on the inside, that it consisted of glowing good health and a fine...

Milking Problems and Problem Milkers

Phyllis Vallette, missionary in Djibo, Burkina Faso, wrote me At our semi-desert latitude, the Africans manage their cattle and goats with absolutely no barns, and very limited use of pens. The Fulanis here do make a calf-pen, which they use at milking time they corral the calves, then a child is posted to let them out one at a time on call. The calf starts to nurse, then the milker-woman takes it off the udder and ties its neck to the cow's front leg (both an anchor and a distraction to keep...

Products and Processes

Butter To make herb butters, start with either salted or unsalted butter, as you prefer. Soften the butter and cream into it finely chopped herbs to your taste. Chives, minced garlic, or watercress are fine additions. You may want to add a little lemon juice. Use 1-2 T. (well-packed) fresh herbs or 1-2 t. dried ones per lA c. butter. Use the herb butter on bread or hot meats, or with eggs. Unsalted butter won't keep as well as salted, but it's best for people who are watching their blood...

Eat herbs from 1 lie sea

Spice And Herb Compatibility Chart

If your skin produces excess oil. especially in the face's T-zone forehead. nose and chin , these delicious seaweeds can make a difference by working from wilhin. 1 tablespoon powdered brewer's yeast 1 teaspoon powdered spirulina 1 tablespoon plain yogurt 1 egg white cornflour Kelp l.nminari.i sp.i This source of vitamins C and A is a blood purifier, while its natural iodine content normalises the lymph system. kombu I ., setchelli Also known as horsetail kelp, kombu is a staple ingredient in...

St Johns worl

Hypericum perforatum Relieves anxiety and depression While black cohosh is very effective for the treatment of hot flushes, night sweats and insomnia, its effects against the anxiety and depression that sometimes come with menopause are less marked. Consequently, herbalists often prescribe it with St. John's wort for women whose menopausal symptoms include emotional upset. When the two herbs were taken together during a 2006 study, significant improvements were noted in both the psychological...

Validating herbal medicines

The double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial is regarded as the gold standard for medicinal research, enabling unbiased statistical analysis of the safety and efficacy of medicines. As more and more herbs are subjected to clinical trials and proven to have therapeutic benefit, their credibility in the medical world increases, and doctors become more open to the idea of prescribing them for their Each year, more fharu 500 million people become seruju amp ly ill with malaria every 30...

The Business of Herbs

Buying Herbs and Herb Products Herb growing and use are enjoying renewed popularity both with builders of beautiful cuisines and fragrant potpourris, and with seekers after kinder, gentler, cheaper cures for what ails them. Here's a list of places to buy herbs. Later in this chapter, as I discuss specific herbs, I'll note the firms that sell them. If you don't find their addresses below, look in the introduction to Chapter 2 (for firms that also carry vegetables) or the source list in Chapter 6...

Functional properties and toxicity

Peppers are well-known for their health benefits. Herbalists have long promoted peppers for their health-enhancing effects. These include clearing the lungs and sinuses, protecting the stomach by increasing the flow of digestive juices, triggering the brain to release endorphins (natural painkillers), making your mouth water, which helps to neutralize cavity-causing acids, and helping protect the body against cancer through anti-oxidant activity.3 The acute toxicity of capsaicin has been...

An ancient tradition with spiritual roots

Chinese herbalism has a history that can be traced back thousands of years. The most famous of Chinese herb books, The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic (or Huong Di NeiJing), may have been written in about 100 bce, but its origins are even older the emperor for whom it was named ruled from 2,698 to 2,596 bce. Since then, Chinese scholars have continued to document this complex and sophisticated method of healing, and traditional Chinese medicine continues to thrive today in mainland China, in...

Boxwoodfwit

Calnip Flowers

The small leaves and compact growth habit of boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) The wood of box was traditionally used in engraving blocks, marquetry and instruments. Although there are some 70 species of boxwood, it is the slow-growing and long-lived common box. with its neal foliage and dense wood, thai is used in formal gardening. It is also used in homeopathy but not in modern herbal medicine, due to its toxicity. Parts used Leaves, bark (note that the plant can cause allergic reactions in...

Introduction and description

The genus Nigella contains about 20 species of annual herbs, the most popular of which is Nigella sativa L. It is native to the Mediterranean region through West Asia to northern India and has long been domesticated. It can be frequently found growing wild as a weed in cultivated crops. Nigella as black cumin is mentioned in ancient Greek, Roman and Hebrew texts as a condiment and component of herbal medicines and was reportedly introduced to Britain in 1548. It is a minor seed spice cultivated...

Introducing the remedies

Here's a list of the Bach Flower Remedies and their main indications. Agrimony helps cheerful people who are secretly troubled to deal with their underlying problems. Aspen supports those who are anxious or worried, but are unable to identify what frightens them. Beech fosters a spirit of compassion in those who are intolerant of people who are different to them. Centaury helps people who over-extend themselves helping others to learn to say no so they don't wear themselves out. Cerato boosts...

The raw materials

0 One of the things that makes North Indian cuisine so special is the spectacular variety of ingredients available to the cook. Each of the four regions has its own distinctly different cooking style, based on the climate and crops grown, religious I influences, and the cooking mediums preferred. Everywhere the cooking is 1_ enhanced with fresh aromatics, herbs, spices, and other flavoring ingredients. Many different chilies, both fresh and dried, are used in North Indian cookery, varying in...

Wilch hazel

Homamelis virginiana Hemorrhoid healer In clinical trials, topical applications of witch hazel have been demonstrated to be as effective as other medications (including corticosteroids) for the relief of the pain, itching and bleeding of hemorrhoids. The herb is also traditionally taken internally for the treatment of hemorrhoids, but its astringent nature makes it unsuitable for people with a tendency to be constipated. 0 DOSAOI Rub witch hazel gel, ointment or tincture into the affected area...

Tasteofhomecom

Meet 16-year-old Lily Bussel of Eugene, Oregon. She worked hard to turn a small treat into a big success for local charities. CHOCOLATE DIPPED STRAWBERRY CHEESECAKE Kick up your menu with bold Creole and Cajun flavors. Everything you need for a salute to Mardi Gras Tickle the fancy of your special someone with a romantic dinner or a luscious treat. Find St. Pat's recipes and ideas worth a pot of gold and they won't cost a lot of green to prepare. If you look on the cover of this issue, you'll...

Rum and Flip

In our survey of sugar and molasses in chapter 6, we did not particularly emphasize their close connection with certain beverages. International trade in sugar, molasses, rum, chocolate, tea, and coffee all arose and flourished interdependently. Demand for refined white sugar was crucially linked to its use as a sweetener in chocolate, tea, and coffee. What concerns us now is the principal use of sugar's cheaper cousin, molasses. From the very beginnings of the West Indian sugar cane industry,...

Portions In Food Service

The size of the portion served to the guest varies based on a number of factors. The first factor is the meal period. Lunch portions are smaller than dinner portions. Some restaurants offer the same entrees for both lunch and dinner. The dinner portions are larger than the same item at lunch and might come with a choice of soup or salad. If this is the case, the menu price for the dinner entree is higher than the comparable entree served for lunch. In a restaurant where the norm for dinner is a...

Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

Grossest Edible Mushrooms

Many edible mushrooms are found only in association with the roots of certain trees. In these intimate symbiotic relationships the fungus benefits the growth of the tree by helping with the uptake of essential elements, and the plant provides the fungus with carbohydrates and a place to live. These are the mycorrhizal mushrooms, and among them are some of the most expensive foods in the world. To understand the high value placed on edible mycorrhizal mushrooms and why attempts to cultivate them...

Pancakes with Maple Syrup

Pancake And Syrup Presentation

YIELD 50 SERVINGS SERVING SIZE 4 EACH COOKING TECHNIQUE BAKE 1 qt. Pasteurized eggs 3 qt. Milk_ 6 lbs. All-purpose flour 8 oz. Sugar and kept warm at 135 F (57 C) or above Pancakes can be either savory or sweet, and made with different ingredients. Many different cultures have pancakes as part of their cuisines. Use the Internet or library to research these, and write a summary of each recipe's ingredients and cooking method. 1. In a mixing bowl, beat the eggs. 2. Add the milk and vanilla to...

Awabi Abalone

Awabi is best in April, May and June, and the opening day for divers to begin taking this shellfish is fixed as April i. It is always found in rockv underwater areas near the kombu and nori seaweeds on which it feeds. The divers pry the abalone from the rocks with a forked metal rod. In the days before World War II, the flesh of this marine univalve mollusk was always steamed in salt water before it was used as a sushi topping. Today, however, it appears uncooked, in spite of the fact that its...

Mycena Chlorinosma

A key to the main mushroom genera covered in this book that have various shapes those not cap-shaped with stalks. mushrooms that grow on live trees are edible, while those that grow on dead trees are poisonous mushrooms eaten by snails or other small animals, or that are not poisonous to animals such as squirrels, are edible violet and viscid mushrooms are poisonous mushrooms whose flesh changes color on cutting are poisonous mushrooms that exude latex are poisonous mushrooms that smell like...

Chicken Paillard with Grilled Vegetables

Portions 12 Portion size 1 chicken breast, about 6 oz (175 g) Portions 12 Portion size 1 chicken breast, about 6 oz (175 g) Calories, 250 Protein, 34 g Fat, 11 g (41 cal.) Cholesterol, 95 mg Carbohydrates, 1 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 370 mg. Calories, 250 Protein, 34 g Fat, 11 g (41 cal.) Cholesterol, 95 mg Carbohydrates, 1 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 370 mg. 1. Place each chicken breast between sheets of plastic film. With a meat mallet, carefully pound to a uniform thickness of about 54 in. (6 mm). 2....

Cold Platter Preparation

Vegetable Tray Ideas

Cold platters are a common product of the garde manger work station. Cold platters can be very simple or very complex. Here are some examples of typical foods that might be served on cold platters as part of a buffet, at a reception, or before a formal dinner Platters of raw sliced vegetables served with dips. Crudit .kr -di-'ta is the French word for raw, or in this case, raw vegetables. Platters of specially prepared food items, such as canap s, salads on croutons, pinwheel sandwiches, or...

Beef Primal Cuts

A, b Tensor fasciae latae c Sartorius d Gluteus accessorius e Ilio-psoas a Multifidus dorsi b Spinalis dorsi c Longissimus costarum d Intercostal e Serratus dorsalis, posterior f Obliquus abdominis externus e Longissimus costarum f Infraspinatus g Subscapularis a Multifidus dorsi b Spinalis dorsi c Complexus d Serratus dorsalis e Longissimus costarum f Infraspinatus g Subscapularis a Brachiocephalicus b Superficial pectoral c Triceps brachii, medial head e Intercostal d Tensor fasciae...

Cow Butchering

Butchering Old Cows

AGES What you'll call the meat depends on what age the cow was when butchered. Veal. A calf that is butchered at 8-10 weeks will weigh about 180 lb., dress out to about 100 lb., and be called veal. Veal is light colored and mild flavored and very tender compared to beef. Veal goes well in recipes for young chicken. In Victorian days when they really went in for a big variety of exotic meats for the tables of the rich blackbirds in a pie and the gamut to a haunch of venison veal was a delicate...

Squash Sponge Luffa

The luffas are a totally different gourd species (Luffa) than the lagenarias. The luffa (sometimes spelled loofa) originated in Asia and has as about as many names as there are seed catalogs. One of its most common names is vegetable sponge because the skeleton of this gourd is the luffa sponge you can buy from your health-food store. It's also known as towel gourd or dishcloth gourd. Asian specialty catalogs may use its Chinese names. Luffa sponges can be used as bathing sponges, boat or...

What is chlorinated flour and how is it used

The treatment of flour with chlorine gas was first identified in the 1920s and was used for the modification of the cakemaking properties of flours for many years in the UK, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and many other countries. The use of chlorination for cake flour treatment was withdrawn from the UK in 2000 The Miscellaneous Food Additive Amendment Regulations, 1999 . It remains permitted in many other countries. Chlorine treatment of flour permits the raising of recipe...

History Of Modern Food Service

The value of history is that it helps us understand the present and the future. In food service, knowledge of our professional heritage helps us see why we do things as we do, how our cooking techniques have been developed and refined, and how we can continue to develop and innovate in the years ahead. An important lesson of history is that the way we cook now is the result of the work done by countless chefs over hundreds of years. Cooking is as much science as it is art. Cooking techniques...

Measurements Metric Equivalents

Acres Square Miles

Until everyone agrees on one system of measurement, we'll have to keep converting. On the following pages are some tables comparing metric amounts and measurements to those we use in the United States. For an easy introduction to metric cooking, read Metric Cooking for Beginners, by Ginevera Barta. 1 liter liquid (water) weighs 1 kilogram. Milliliters to Teaspoons Tablespoons Cups are rounded off. They're fine for cooking, but I wouldn't try to do industrial chemistry with them One milliliter...

Harvesting Wild Rice

Harvesting Images India

Water Level for Harvest Wild rice can handle torrential flooding in the spring, but it needs a stable or gradually lowering water level as harvest approaches. Flooding can destroy the harvest. A sudden drop in water level can cause the plants to collapse onto the water. ripening In early August, the oat-type, loosely branched seed head is produced at the top of the stem. The kernel is first light green, then olive brown, and finally brown or black. When ripening, the formerly pale-green stalks...

Headcheese and Scrapple

Headcheese is a homemade luncheon meat. It's quick and easy compared to scrapple. It's an all-meat product. You can add in the pig's tongue, skin, heart, and other scraps, if you want to. Headcheese makes a fine cold snack when cut in slices and served with hot mustard or horseradish. Or it can be dipped in egg and crumbs and fried like scrapple for your meat dish. Or you can make a kind of sausage out of it, if you know where to get casings or how . Like all pork products it's on the bland...

Beef Loin Strip Loin Steak Boneless

The boneless steaks shall be prepared from any beef short loin, bone-in strip loin, or boneless strip loin item, provided the item meets the end requirements of Item No. 180. All bones and cartilages shall be excluded. See Item No. 1173 for purchaser tail length options. 1 1 OA Beef Loin, Strip Loin Steak, 10 Jr Boneless, Center-Cut This item, in addition to meeting the requirements of Item No. 1180, shall be further prepared by excluding the posterior or sirloin butt end of the boneless strip...

The Goosefoot Greens

Amaranth is a more distant relative of this bunch, as are purslane and sea purslane. The rest beet greens, Good King Henry, lamb's-quarters, Malabar spinach, orach, spinach, Swiss chard, and water spinach are all closely related members of the family Chenopodiaceae the beet, chard, spinach, and quinoa family. Some food experts recommend that you boil the goose-foot greens before eating them. This is because they all contain more than the usual amount of oxalic acid too much oxalate can cause...

Segmented screwbarrel singlescrew wet extruders

A typical drawing of the single segmented wet extruder is shown in Fig. 3.1. Segmented screw barrel single-screw extruders are the most widely applied cooking extrusion design in the food, pet foods and feeds processing industries. 'Wet' means that steam and water can be injected into the barrel during processing. Typically, the barrels of these machines are also equipped with heating and cooling jackets. They process more tonnage of extruded products than any other extruder design. The...

Snail Snake Turtle and Frog

Different Types Edible Snails

Here's how to prepare these critters that are neither bird, mammal, nor fish. snail There's a lot to know about collecting and eating snails. Some are not good to eat. Some need special treatment. There are land and marine snails too, and each are different. California is good snail hunting country. Here's the necessary info (thanks to the Division of Agricultural Sciences, U. of California) for preparing the edible European brown snail or brown garden snail (Helis aspersa), which is called...

Common Seasoning And Flavoring Ingredients

Any food product can be used as a flavoring ingredient, even meat (as when crumbled bacon is added to sauteed potatoes or diced ham is included in a mirepoix). Sauces, which are complex preparations containing many flavoring ingredients, are themselves used as flavorings for meat, fish, vegetables, and desserts. We obviously cannot treat all possible flavoring ingredients here, but we discuss some of the most important as follows. A survey of herbs and spices is provided in Table 4.1 on pages...

Review and Applications

Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills 16. Coordinate Jobs As a class, choose a simple meal to prepare. Your teacher will assign you to work stations. As a group, coordinate responsibilities with those of the other work stations before beginning preparation. Then, prepare your meal, working together while manning each separate work station. 17. Make a List List the characteristics of a well-designed professional foodservice kitchen and give reasons for each characteristic you choose. What makes...

Truffles Map Europe

Robert Abbett Gallery

Tuber melanosporum (Perigord black truffle) production in Quercy, France, since 1920 (Fauconnet and Delher 1998). However, there is mounting concern that the quantities of mycorrhizal mushrooms that can be harvested are declining. While articles with titles like Disappearing Mushrooms Another Mass Extinction (Cherfas 1991) are somewhat alarmist, it is undeniable that there have been catastrophic declines in the harvest of some mycorrhizal mushrooms over the past hundred years. For example, at...

Why do our choux buns collapse during baking

It is important when baking choux products that the oven temperature is sufficiently high to impart heat quickly at the start of baking. Consequently a rapid recovery of the baking temperature after the product has been loaded into the oven is vital. If the temperature controls are set too low then the recovery rate is low, resulting in shrinkage or collapse of the products. If the steam damper is partly or totally open the problem is exacerbated. The best results are obtained when the steam...

How Cooking Alters Food

What Different Cooking Procedures

Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. dry cooking technique coagulate j moist cooking technique j caramelization j combination cooking Explain how cooking affects a food's nutritive value, texture, color, aroma, and flavor. Cooking is heating food to transform it in...

Uu Bhapa lobster Steamed lobster with coconut ginger and chili

This would make a great party dish, one sure to impress your guests. In India it is reserved for special occasions and intimate gatherings, when important guests and relations arrive. The use of coconut, mustard, chili, and ginger creates an interesting interplay of flavors. The sweetness of lobster and coconut is balanced by the heat from chili and ginger and the pungency of the mustard oil. 272 oz (75 g) yellow mustard seeds 2 tsp salt scant 2 tbsp white vinegar 1 2 tsp caster sugar 6 raw...

Standardized Recipes

One crucial tool used in the foodservice industry is the standardized recipe. Using your research and interview with a chef or cook, you will create a standardized recipe and share what you have learned with your class. If you completed the journal entry from page 217, refer to it to see what recipes you have used in the past. Add any additional notes about other recipes you think might be interesting to try. NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. NCTE 7 Conduct research and...

Types And Makeup Methods

We can classify cookie types by makeup method as well as by mixing method. Grouping by the makeup method is perhaps more useful from the point of view of production because mixing methods are relatively simple, whereas makeup procedures vary considerably. In this section,we present basic procedures for producing seven cookie types No matter what makeup method you use, follow one important rule Make all cookies of uniform size and thickness .This is essential for even baking. Because baking...

Panning Baking And Cooling

Lining the sheets with parchment or silicone paper is fast, and it eliminates the necessity of greasing the pans. 3. A heavily greased pan increases the spread of the cookie. A greased and floured pan decreases spread. 4. Some high-fat cookies can be baked on ungreased pans. 1. Most cookies are baked at a relatively high temperature for a short time. 2. Too low a temperature increases spreading and may produce hard, dry, pale cookies. 3. Too high a temperature decreases spreading and may burn...

Arrangement And Presentation

A plated salad may have as many as four parts base, body, dressing,and garnish. All salads have body, and most have dressing, but base and garnish are parts of only some salads, as you will see in the following discussion. Of course this discussion refers only to individual plated salads.When we use the term salad to refer to a bulk mixture, as in two pounds of potato salad, references to the four parts of a salad do not apply. A scoop of potato salad looks bare when served by itself on a salad...

Sauteing And Panfrying

As in meat cookery, the exact distinction between saut ing and pan-frying fish is impossible to draw. For many purposes, the two terms are used interchangeably. A classic method for saut ing fish is called la meuni re (mun yair). In this preparation, the product is dredged in flour and saut ed in clarified butter or oil. It is then plated and sprinkled with lemon juice and chopped parsley, and freshly prepared hot brown butter (beurre noisette) is poured over it.When the hot butter hits the...

The Organization Of Modern Kitchens

The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so they can be done efficiently and properly and so all workers know what their responsibilities are. The way a kitchen is organized depends on several factors. The kinds of dishes to be produced obviously determine the jobs that need to be done.The menu is, in fact, the basis of the entire operation. Because of its impor- tance,we devote a whole chapter to a study of the menu (Chapter 5). The major types of food service...

Brandied Fruit

Foods preserved in alcohol are brandied. Wines and foods containing over 14 percent alcohol by volume are self-preserving. Wines and foods with a weaker concentration of alcohol can become sour and vinegary. Brandied food should be kept cool and airtight. Burying it deep in the ground works well. The trouble with preserving food by brandying is that it will give you a hangover. I'd hate to have to get drunk to eat. Incidentally, many people hold very strong opinions for or against the use of...

Section I Introduction

Flavor And Palatability The Food

Food standards are difficult to define and are not measurable by mechanical means. However, it is possible to evaluate food products in terms of nutritive value, flavor, and appearance. In a dining facility, the acceptance of a food item by the persons consuming it is used as a standard more often than any other means of measurement. Even then several factors tend to influence individual opinion about the quality of food age, cultural and socio-economic background, past experiences...

Temporary Emulsions

A simple oil and vinegar dressing is called a temporary emulsion because the two liquids always separate after being shaken. The harder the mixture is beaten or shaken, the longer it takes for it to separate. This is because the oil and water are broken into smaller droplets, so the droplets take longer to recombine with each other so the oil and water can separate.When a mixture of oil and vinegar is mixed in a blender, the resulting mixture stays in emulsion considerably longer. Some...

Chopaka Nut Orchard Pilarski

The bulk of what follows used to make up the Sweets chapter, and there was a lot more in it about how to make apple butter than about how to grow a tree. Now, as I sit down to write this new edition, I am more worried about preserving the topsoil, maintaining our atmospheric oxygen, and reducing the earth's carbon dioxide level (and risk of a disastrous greenhouse effect) than I am in making sure you can cook apple butter. Apple butter is still here, but I've added as much as I could (not as...

The stages of mushroom growing

In a commercial operation, mushroom cultivation is in temperature and humidity-controlled windowless greenhouses, tunnels or caves. There are five major steps to readying a mushroom for your pot. 1. Substrate preparation. Substrate is the organic material that the mushroom uses as its food source. Carefully preparing this determines both the size and quantity of the crop. Different cultivated species flourish in different substrate. All substrates are high in cellulose, which the mushroom...

Curry plant

Dwarf Curry Plant Herb

H. angustifolium Asteraceae The intensely silvered needlelike foliage of this planl releases a mouthwatering fragrance of curry. The flowers can he dried and included in floral arrangements or used in craft work, while the essential oil is used in perfumery. Other common names Strawflower Italian everlasting Parts used Leaves, flowers Curry plant is sometimes confused with ihe curry tree (Murraya koenigii). which is used in Ayurvedic medicine. This small tree with...

Garnishing Tools

Vegetable Peeler Although this tool is used mainly to shave the skin from fruits and vegetables, it is also an important garnishing tool. Use it to make decorative carrot curls and chocolate curls. Butter Curler This tool has a curved, hook-like blade that can be used to make curls to grooves to marble-size balls. For best results, use ice-cold butter and a butter curler with a blade that has been warmed in hot water. Zester To add eye appeal and flavor to your dish, use the zester to remove...

Graphic Organizer About Cookery

Adjust Reading Speed Improve your comprehension by adjusting reading speed to match the difficulty of the text. Slow down and, if needed, reread each paragraph. Reading more slowly may take longer, but you will understand and remember more. Outline the steps in making and plating different types of hot sandwiches. Explain the procedure for making various types of cold sandwiches. Sandwiches can be either hot or cold. Many of the same type of ingredients As you read, use a web diagram like the...

Old Fashioned Recipes - Wool Wash

Wool Preparation Steps

Wool Marketing Wool is sold by the pound. Some sheep keepers are into spinning and weaving, and they keep the animals mainly for their personal wool crop, which they'll card, spin, and weave themselves. Many sell to other hand spinners or to a larger wool buyer. In general, hand spinners like wool in interesting colors like black, silvery, brown, or blue, and will pay 2-10 times as much as commercial wool buyers, depending on how pretty and how scarce the color and texture of the wool is. Ask...

Common Legumes

Rinsing Legumes

Navy Beans Navy beans are small and oval in shape. They are white in color, have a powdery texture, and a mild flavor. Peanuts Peanuts are oblong kernels. They are light brown in color, and have a firm texture. Pinto Beans Pinto beans are medium-size, oval-shaped beans. They are beige and brown in color, and are typically mottled. They have a powdery texture and an earthy flavor. Black Beans Black beans are medium-size and oval-shaped. They are also called turtle beans. Black beans have a...

Desserts

Milk and Pastry Pudding, 56 Coconut and Semolina Cake, 58 North African cuisine abounds in rich, savory flavors and aromas, yet the basic ingredients are familiar. They include fish, poultry, eggplants, zucchini, bell peppers, carrots, lentils, chickpeas, beans, apples, peaches, lemons, limes, dates, and nuts. Lamb is the favorite meat in North Africa. North African cooks transform these familiar foods with an array of flavorful herbs and spices. Common among them are cumin, cinnamon, ginger,...